Because many differential validity studies have smaller numbers of minority members as sample, it is important to look beyond statistical significance of validity coefficients. The same correlation can be statistically significant for one group but insignificant for another group. Intercept Bias is the name given when the test scores for individuals in a minority group systematically underestimate performance on a criterion (e.g., IQ predicting achievement) compared to the scores from those in the majority. A thorough job or task analysis and a test that provides scores meaningful to the particular job or task analyzed are important in reviewing items for such bias. However, researchers who study cultural differences in intelligence face a major challenge of balancing the desire to compare people from various cultures according to a standard measure with the need to assess people with reference to their own values and contexts, says Elena Grigorenko (Deputy Director of the Centre for the Psychology of Abilities, Competencies and Expertise at Yale).
Further other three cultural dimensions of individualism, masculinity and long term orientation have not been considered in their study as their impact is not noticeable level. The same findings can be identified in the study of Warkentin et al. (2002). Their results also reveal that there is a significant influence from the uncertainty avoidance as well as power distance to adoption and use of e-government services. Akkaya et al.
Professor Geert Hofstede conducted a research on of how values in the workplace are influenced by culture. From his studied, we can see that culture has an effect on people not only in the workplace but also in their social life. Hofstede developed the model of national culture which consists of six dimensions. The six dimensions are Power distance, Identity, Gender, Uncertainty, Virtue and Happiness. In this paper, I will show the similarity and difference between my discussion partner and I based on Hofstede’s Theory.
Hofstede deemed five primary dimensions that are important to differentiating cultures from others: individualism, power distance, gender equality, uncertainty tolerance, and orientation towards tradition. Individualism (IDV) looks at the amount of integration an individual endures. Power Difference (PDI) looks at the degree of equality (or lack thereof) among individuals in the country’s society. Masculinity (MAS) vs Femininity focuses on whether the country’s community reinforces traditional masculine work role model of male achievement, control, and power. Uncertainty
Masculinity versus femininity This dimension doesn’t correlate directly with gender roles or behaviours. Instead this is more orientated towards specific traits that Hofstede has defined as masculine and low masculine (femininity). A high masculine culture is characterized by focusing on money, possessions, and traditional family values. Feminine cultures are said to be relationship oriented, focused on quality of life, and failing is generally more accepted. This is best describe by the commonly used phrase “Americans live to work, while Europeans work to live.
Theoretical review: Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Theory One of the most cited model to analyse the cross-cultural aspects is the Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions Theory (Hofstede, 1980): he proposed four value dimension through which a culture can be distinguished and evaluated, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity, long term orientation. In 1998, Schuler and Rogovsky applied the model to explain compensation practice. Although scholars have questioned the validity of Hofstede’s model as a representation of national culture (as obtained from a specific company), it is the most widely recognized and cited cultural model (Newman and Novell, 1996, cited in Schuler and Rogovsky, 1998). To give an overview, we are about to briefly describe the five dimension and how they can be connected to the reward system. The first value is Power Distance, it refers to the level of acceptance of inequity, which means the degree to which subordinates accept unequal power (Deresky, 2011).
Overview of Hofstede's cultural dimensions On its website, Hofstede Insights (2018) lists six cultural dimensions when comparing between countries: " Power distance: The extent to which people in the society accept the unequal hierarchy or unequal distribution of power. " Individualism - Collectivism: The degree to which individuals integrate into groups. " Uncertainty avoidance: The extent to which people are tolerant for ambiguity. " Long-term - Short-term orientation: The extent to which individuals dealt with events in the past and prepare for the present and future. " Masculinity - Femininity: The level to which the society values competition, success and achievement (masculine) or caring about other people and quality of life (feminine). "
Hofstede realized a study describing the differences of national cultures between more than fifty countries (Meier, 2006). He wrote a theory based on six independent dimensions. According to him, these dimensions define the culture of a country. The first original theory offered four dimensions showing how cultural values could be analyzed: individualism-collectivism; masculinity-femininity. uncertainty avoidance and power distance.
• The corporate level: Associated with the particular culture of an organization. Applicable to those who are employed. Culture can be viewed in terms of both what one does and how one thinks based on their beliefs, traditions, customs, norms, and even religion (Hofstede,1980). Professor Geert Hofstede, a Dutch cultural researcher, has conducted the most known research and theory about five cultural dimensions that can be used to compare cultures and for categorizing them. The study was carried out internationally in 1960s and 1970s among employees working for IBM.