When the First Crusade was launched, Jerusalem churches were under the Muslim rule. When Pope Urban II was elected, he found himself the head of a reformed movement to win back the holy land of Jerusalem, and relieve churches of the Muslim rule. Emperor Alexius, the emperor of the Byzantine Empire, requested help from Pope Urban because the Muslims were killing his Christian people. Since the Muslims were in command of Jerusalem, the violent acts happening in the Byzantine Empire by the Muslims were happening in Jerusalem as well. The First Crusade, which was the most successful, was launched by Pope Urban II in 1095 when he was newly elected into papacy.
The Crusades started in 1095 when Pope Urban II wanted to take back Jerusalem. I think the results of the Crusades was more positive than negative than positive since people lost interest in them. Not only that, they killed and abused many innocents. One of the reasons the Crusades were more negative is because people lost interest in them.
The Crusades What were the crusades? The crusades were a series of wars between the Catholics and the Saracens which surprisingly we call Muslims now. The crusades started in 1095 when Pope Clermont preached the first crusade. In this exciting paper I will be talking about the different crusades and the effect they had in the middle ages.
While many accounts of the Crusades focus on the raping and sacking of cities, Madden defends and explains the Crusades motivations throughout the text as a response to Muslim advances. However, to completely understand what Madden is arguing, he explains how men began to join the Crusades and why. Simply put, Madden explains the theory of the pious
The Byzantine Iconoclastic Controversy began in 726 CE when Emperor Leo III issued a decree against the worship of icons.1 This action resulted in the removal and destruction of icons in churches and monasteries.2 There had been tensions rising between the church and the state over the use of icons for some time, but the culmination of these tensions along with the pressure of Muslim armies attacking the borders of Byzantium lead to the explosive Iconoclastic Controversy. The iconoclasts ardently believed that the creation of images depicting holy people was making God angry. The iconophiles believed that these images were sacred and used them as a means of worshiping God. This theological battle lead to the meeting of several ecumenical councils in order to resolve the controversy between the church and the state. This paper will examine the arguments for and against the use of icons from iconoclasts and iconophiles in the Byzantine Empire.
In this manner, the Europeans formed the Crusaders against the Turks and Muslims to retake the places known as holly and spread Christianity and European culture all over the world because “the twin legacies of early medieval missionary activity before the year 1000 and of monastic reform in the eleventh and twelfth centuries provided the conditions for translating ideology into practice.” In this manner, the religious missions focused on influencing on other peoples’ faith to convert them into Christianity. Other controversial thing was about the understating of the diversity, and this understanding did not happen as it was supposed to be because an understanding of the diversity would help states to live longer. And understanding of the diversity of the multiculturalism is to respect to other ethnic and religious groups, so the idea of Europe was against this concept, too. Another controversial thing was the Islamic belief of Jihad.
Occurring predominantly in Europe and the Middle East, the Crusades began in 1095 and officially ended in 1291 (History.com staff, 2010). This being said, the causes can be traced back to 1081 when Alexius Comnenus gained the Byzantine throne, becoming Emperor Alexius I, after years of chaos and invasions by the Seljuk Turks (History.com staff, 2010). In due time Emperor Alexius would begin to set his sights on reclaiming the Holy Land from the Muslims. Seeing that this task would require more than the Byzantine’s men, he reached out to Pope Urban II of the Roman Catholic Church asking him for troops (History.com staff, 2010). The Pope made his decision public at the 1095 Council of Clermont in Southern France where he raised the proposal for all able Western Christians to raise arms to aid the Byzantines.
The demise of Byzantine Empire began with their defeat during the battle of Manzikert (Rodgers 88). The Turks captured Emperor Romanos IV and humiliated him. During the early 14th Century, two civil wars weakened the empire. The first was a power-sharing war involving an emperor and his grandson fought between 1321-1328 AD. The second war involved the thrones and the aristocracy giving the Serbs an opportunity to invade the empire.
There were many minority nations that wanted to establish independence and separate themselves from the mainstream, dominant society. This collective identity and unity that the nations have established caused them to form extreme nationalist ideas and revolt against the more influential people they were controlled by. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand happened due to the severe nationalistic feelings of the Serbs. The Serbs had always wanted to achieve sovereignty and independence from Austria-Hungary. When Franz Ferdinand announced that he will be leaving to Sarajevo to greet the townspeople on June 28, 1914, a terrorist organization called the ‘Black Hand’ had meticulously arranged an attack against Franz Ferdinand.
The most damaging thing Frederik II did the to the church was his attempt at controlling the papacy. After the death of Pope Gregory IX, Frederik’s enemy, Frederik attempted to arrange for the election of a pope who would more readily accede to Frederik’s wishes. Frederik tried to accomplish this through striking aggression. “To intimidate the cardinals, Frederick had brought an army to within sight of the walls of Rome” (Paris, 297), and he also “detained two
The Crusades were a series of religious wars fought from 1095 to 1487. The first of the crusades began in 1095 when the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, Alexios I, sent someone to request Pope Urban II to assist them with military support against the Turks. Pope Urban II quickly asked Catholic soldiers to join the first crusade. The first goal was to give the pilgrims access to areas in the Holy Land that Muslims were controlling. A more long-term goal would be to have the Eastern and Western parts of Christendom reunite.
The conflict causing the schism in 1054 was known as an investiture controversy. An investiture controversy describes a dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Empire over who held ultimate authority over the bishops in imperial lands. Popes of this time were corrupt and desired power. They started the Crusades to establish their power over the rightful rulers of Western Europe. The Crusades were armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim Rule.
The crusades have provided some of the most frequent arguments against the Christian faith. Some Islamic terrorists even claim that their terrorist attacks are revenge for what Christians did in the crusades. First of all, the crusades should not be referred to as the “Christian crusades.” Most of the people involved in the crusades were not truly Christians, even though they claimed to be. The name of Christ was abused, misused, and blasphemed by the actions of many of the crusaders.
The Crusades were a series of holy wars that took place from 1095-c.1300 to reclaim the holy land , although it became a fight for wealth and power. The Crusades were nicknamed the “holy war” because the semitic religions fought for Jerusalem. These nine Crusades were all brutal wars that caused civilian casualties, this occurred during the Dark Ages. The start of the Crusades began when Pope Urban proposed the idea to try to help fellow Eastern Christians against the Muslims. Civilians and Christians mainly thought because they believed it freed the soul from sin and they fought for spirituality.
The Crusades was a turning point in history because it depleted the population, made the relationships between religions very strained, and introduced a variety of new ideas and products to the Europeans/Crusaders. The Crusades began after Emperor Alexius requested Pope Urban III to find him a couple of hundred mercenaries who would help him take back the Holy lands after the Muslims had taken it over and had limited their access to their biblical sites. He supported their claim to the crusades by saying that God owns all the land and that it was meant for his children, but since the Muslims stole and inhabited his land, so they must take it back. Pope Urban III gave a speech to all of western christendom, saying, “This royal city, therefore, situated at the center of the world, is now held captive by His enemies, and is in subjection to those who do not know God, to the worship of the heathens. She seeks therefore and desires to be liberated, and does not cease to implore you to come to her aid.”.