Homer's Odyssey-Kalypso-Nymph And Daughter Of Atlas

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-Kalypso-Nymph and daughter of Atlas. Odysseus washed ashore on the island of Ogygia where she resided. She held him captive for seven years because she was in love with him. She wanted to make him immortal, but he declined, because he could not forget his love for Penelope. Hermes came to tell Calyspo that by the orders of Zeus she was to release Odysseus. She helped Odysseus construct a raft, and he continued sailing back towards home.

-Circe- A sorceress who lived on the island of Aeaea. She is the daughter of Helios (the Sun). She would give the men that arrived at her island a concoction of wine with honey and poison which would turn the men into animals.
-Odysseus stayed behind, and a group of the men went to see Circe. She gave them
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This causes her to get hung by Telemachos.

-Odysseus- The protagonist of the Odyssey. Strong, brave, and tenacious. He overcomes many obstacles and after 20 years he finally returns to Ithaca.

-Telemakhos- Son of Odysseus. Telemachos loathes the suitors and wants them out of the house. He is one of the people who knows that Odysseus is disguised as the beggar. Telemachos helps Odysseus defeat the suitors. Telemachos kills Amphinomos. He also hangs the 12 maids who had affairs with suitors.

-Helen- Zeus’s daughter. Wife of Menelaus. She spent her time in Egypt during the Trojan War, but her ghost was in Troy. Once Troy was defeated, she resumed her life in Sparta w. Menelaus.

-Menelaus- Married to Helen and the King of Sparta. He arrived in Egypt after he lost 5 ships because of a monstrous storm. Proteus told him that alleviating the anger of the gods will allow Melelaus to sail back to Greece without any trouble. Once Troy was defeated, Menelaus and Helen came back to Sparta and continued living their life. When Menelaus passed away, he went to Elysium. He had an advantage being Zeus’s
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Athena conjured up a storm in the Aegean sea. She was furious about Ajax’s blasphemy, which occurred at the sack of Troy.
-The storm destroyed Agamemnon’s fleet that Ajax was sailing. Ajax bragged that he escaped unharmed. Poseidon was not pleased with his arrogance so he struck Ajax w. his trident and killed him.
-Then there was another storm that destroyed a lot of other ships on the Euboean coast. Agamemnon managed to get back to Mycenae, but there his wife Clytemnestra killed him, along with her lover Aegisthus.

XENIA- Hospitality. This is seen many times throughout the Odyssey. For example, Athena guiding Odysseus all throughout his journey. Another example is Aiolus giving Odysseus the bag of winds to guide him home. Furthermore, an additional example is when King Alcinous helped Odysseus by giving him gifts and bringing him back to Ithaca.

ARETE- Wife to King Alcinous. Queen of the Phaeacians, she helped Odysseus and she pitied him. Arete also means excellence.

HOMOPHROSYNE- Means a common way of thinking. Particularly noted with the bond between Odysseus and Penelope. I.e. how Odysseus told the story of how their bed was made with the tree and that was the secret only him and Penelope

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