Perversion is also not connected to the societal norms. There are lots of sexual acts of which society does or has disapproved (adultery) but are not considered perversions. He offers examples to the elucidate his position. Voyeurism, exhibitionism, sadism and masochism are, according to Nagel, incomplete forms of communication. Nagel also talks about homosexuality, and settles that using this quarrel one can hardly call homosexuality perverse, since two persons of the same sex can certainly have complete communication (Nagel, 16).
In Henry L. Minton’s Gay and Lesbian Studies, he presented some of the possible ways that homosexuality could be defined as from different opposing angles. From the psychobiological perspective, “homosexuality = sexual behavior with a member of the organism’s own sex” (Denniston). While some viewed the term as more than just a behavior, but a lifestyle; “I have always been bothered by the definition of homosexuality as a behavior. Scratching is a behavior. Homosexuality is a way of being, one that can completely influence a person’s life and shape its meaning and direction” (Grahn).
Female sexuality and its representation has been the primary concern of this research while applying each of the approaches to proves that du Maurier’s work builds on Jane Eyre but the portrayal it grants to feminine sexuality and identity renders her work a narrative of modernity on its own. Several critics have analyzed the intertexuality between the two novels. However, this study builds what has been said before to dwell on the not yet exhausted topic of feminine sexuality. Nungesser is one of the critics who have presented a comparison between the novels to conclude that both works bring an air of freshness and novelty to the traditional female Gothic plot, the novel of development and the fairy-tale narratives. Nonetheless, Nungesser overlooks to precise subject of female sexuality which happens to be submerged in Jane Eyre’s concern with presenting a financial independent heroine whom in spite of what she suffered prefers to spend the rest of her days as a mere angel of the house.
There exists a very real relationship between the Female Gothic novel of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century and the social context of women at that time. This new class of fiction is essentially treated by women as it addresses women’s experiences offered an opportunity to address “the hidden, unspeakable reality of women’s lives: not just their lives in the private inner world of the psyche, but also their social and economic lives in a real world of patriarchal institutions” (DeLamotte 165). Notwithstanding the success of male Gothicists, Gothic fiction is perceived as a female-dominated genre as Leonard Wolf writes: Despite the triumphs of Lewis and Maturin, the Gothic novel was something of a cottage industry of middle-class
Indeed, the close affinity between both genres is due to their resort to the use of the fantastic in order to defy the oppressive reality of women’s life and to violate this ‘truth.’ According to Sherman, “science fiction, like the gothic, displays an ability to displace cultural and national anxieties of the respective time, functioning as a space wherein these anxieties can be freely, if nebulously, expressed” (4). Coincide with the rise of the second wave feminism in the United States of American, the New wave science fiction women writers revise and rewrite their female precursors; “Ursula K. Le Guin’s ground-breaking study of gender’s grip on human culture in The Left Hand of Darkness (1969) and Joanna Russ’s formally experimental deconstruction of female subjectivity in The Female Man (1975)” are considered as reactionary and revolutionary works which strive to subvert “the conventions of male/female relations [… while] focus[ing] on a radical critique of these relations as based in the inequities of what Adrienne Rich first identified as ‘compulsory heterosexuality’” (Hollinger 128). Indeed, I will study the literary evolution of the Female Gothic tradition while focusing on Russ’s struggle to offer a fresh reading to utopian fiction which is a subgenre of science-fiction, while focusing the changes and metamorphoses of
An Analysis of the Unvoiced Villain and Sex Undertones in Dracula Most readings of Dracula have covered an emphasis on the theme of sexuality, about homoeroticism, blood-transmitted disease, new women of the Victorian era, and perverse sexual practices. These subjects at the repressed Victoria era, as well as sexuality, were considered to be unspeakable in the public sphere. Women were required to be faithful to men; and sex between men was illegal. Yet Stoker’s text serves more than bringing up the taboo of discussing sexuality at that time. His narrative not only has greatly contributed to the partially concealed sexual undertones, but also has expressed the British Empire’s colonial anxiety of contamination by “the others”.
At most it suggests distal inﬂuence by males, with the proximal inﬂuences on speciﬁc women’s and girls’ sexuality being female. General Discussion The cultural suppression of female sexuality is of considerable interest both in its own right and as an important instance of cultural inﬂuence over sexual behavior. On the basis of previous writings, we identiﬁed two major theories regarding the source of this suppression. One of them depicted men as conspiring to suppress female sexuality, as a way of controlling women, ensuring peace and order in society, and reducing the risk of wifely inﬁdelity. The other theory depicted women as cooperating to restrict each other’s sexuality, mainly as a way of ensuring that the exchange of sex for other
Yet, Radcliffe’s precocity to feminise the genre is not limited to her treatment and coverage of women’s sufferings and fears. Susan Becker further explained that her “earl[iest] twists in the feminisation of the Gothic, namely [is] in the reduction of the villain, otherwise subject of the action, to a mere function in the female subject’s transcendence of ‘her proper sphere’: the home” (“Postmodern Feminine Horror” 79-80). Striving to liberate them, Radcliffe’s narratives took the shape of suspenseful mysterious narrative of Romantic journey in which the ‘travelling’ heroine-centered narrative “who moves, who acts, who copes with vicissitude,” escaped, even temporarily, from the patriarchal confining house (qtd. in Hanson 37). Radcliffe writings opened floodgates for her female successors to write within that tradition.
2.0 Content 2.1 Review Topic with Literature Support 2.1.1Definition of Homosexuality In nowadays society, same-sex sexuality is a serious social issue that commonly discuss by public. According to Levay (2011),homosexuality is related to an individual experience of sexual attraction towards the peoples who are having same-sex preferences and gender. Furthermore, this population were defined in many different terms. The term of homosexuality was formulated in the late 19th century. The discussion about sexuality in general, especially same-sex attraction have occurred philosophical discussion although the term is new (Brent, 2015).
This is not just symptomatic of sexualy violence or exploitation due to the third sex identity but also an attmept to catogorise onself into an complete sexual identity. Anarkhali’s alternation of sexual behavioural patterns by gratifying the men in the police station is also a rebellious attempt to claim her predominant feminine idenitiy, as suggested in her name. However ironically Anarkhali in her attempt to claim and identity tries to catogorise herself as the feminine. This act of neutralising the queer idenity further complicates the process of defining the