3- Pharynx (throat): Pharynx is a muscular tube which function is to connect posterior end of the nasal cavity and to the superior end of the esophagus and larynx. Anatomically pharynx is divided into: Nasopharynx: posterior of the nasal cavity, and it receives air that is inhaled by the nasal cavity. Oropharynx: posterior of the oral cavity, and it receives air that is inhaled by oral cavity. Laryngopharynx: the end of pharynx, when the air reaches laryngopharynx the air will be diverted to the larynx. Epiglottis: it is an elastic cartilage covered with a mucus membrane located at the entrance of larynx.
Digestive system – *The digestive system is composed of the mouth cavity, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, and glands. *The mouth cavity is bounded by the upper and lower jaws. *The tongue islong, slender and deeply forked. It has a muscular sheath into which it may retract. The tongue is sensitive and is used as tactile organ.
This tube makes a communication between the naso-pharynx and the tympanic cavity. In adults, its length is about 36mm forming an angle of 45 degree. On the other surface of eustachian tube, small cilia like structures are present that are responsible for the drainage of mucous secretions from the middle ear to the pharynx. The main aim or function of eustachian tube is to ventilate the middle ear and equalizes the pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane (drum). Three muscles are attached to the eustachian tube.
The pons are a part of the metencephalon in the hindbrain. The medulla oblongata is located between the pons and spinal cord. This structure is responsible for basic vital life functions such as breathing, heartbeat, and blood pressure. The midbrain is involved in functions such as vision, hearing, eye movement, and body movement. The pons are involved in motor control and sensory analysis.
• Lung disease is usually manifested as obstructive lung disease due to bronchiectasis. Patients often develop difficulty breathing, cough, and wheezing. • Pancreatic disease manifests as recurrent pancreatitis, abdominal pain, diabetes, and malabsorption of nutrients. • Cystic fibrosis if often identified during newborn screening programs in the United States. Some cases are missed and present during older age.
Pinna The external ear comprises of pinna and external auditory canal. The elastic fibrocartilage forms the body of the pinna and is covered by skin which is attached loosely on its medial surface. This cartilage is avascular and derives its nutrition from the perichondrium. A unique pattern on the lateral surface of the pinna makes it characteristic for each individual and comprises of helix, antihelix, triangular fossa, scaphoid fossa, concha, tragus, antitragus, intertragic notch and lobule. The narrow gap between the anterior crux of helix and tragus is deficient of cartilage and comprises of dense fibrous tissue, known as incisura terminalis.
The bronchi and bronchioles are where air passes through either the nose or mouth, and toward the alveoli in the lungs. The airway splits into left and right braches. It splits down further and further until it reaches the terminal bronchioles. The bronchi have a very similar structure to the trachea. They both have c-shaped cartilage.
Asthma is a condition that affects a person 's breathing. Inside the lungs are airways called breathing tubes or bronchial tubes. With asthma, some of the smallest tubes can swell and narrow, making it harder for air to get through. Let’s talk about breathing. When you breathe in, air enters your nose or mouth, then goes to the windpipe, also called the trachea from there, the air travels into the lungs through the breathing tubes.
The food then travels into the oesophagus. Your oesophagus is located near your trachea (windpipe). The epiglottis separates the nasal cavity and the lower airway from the passage of food whilst swallowing. The contractions of the muscles in your oesophagus push the food down your oesophagus and into your stomach. Your stomach is a hollow organ that holds food whilst it is being broken down by the enzymes.
The pleura (lining of the lungs) is actually comprised of two parts. It has an inner (visceral) layer which is next to the lung and an outer (parietal) layer that covers the chest wall. The two layers slide over each other as we breath and membranes in the lungs
The cause is usually not known, but some conditions (called risk factors) increase the chances that a baby will be born with the condition. They include: • Things that affected the baby 's mother, such as: ○ Having diabetes (too much sugar in the blood). ○ Having a viral infection (caused by a virus) while pregnant. German measles (rubella) is an