The roles and expectations of women were based on the perception that women were inferior to men. Frist, there were numerous tasks and roles for women in the 17th century. Women were to obey and serve their husbands which included tending to their children, maintaining the household, and other chores around the house. Governor John Winthrop stated, “A ‘true wife’ would find contentment only in subjection to her husband’s authority.” (George Brown Tindall, 110) The modal woman at this time was one who would silently do as she was told by her husband. However, there were other roles for women.
“A man’s job is to earn money; a woman’s job is to look after the home and family”. The definition of how a man or a woman should act have recently been redefined by society. Males were supposed to be the strong, dominant figures, in the workplace, providing for their families while females should be the submissive figures, managing the cleaning, cooking and the children. The balance of culture would have been disrupted had anyone drifted away from these definitions. In the 1980’s, a man playing housewife was ludicrous, and a woman being the sole provider for the family was considered outlandish.
The obligatory obedience’s of women to men left very little room for independent growth of females. Women were taught to follow three obediences in relation to the male figureheads of Korean society (Taylor & Choy, 2005). Taylor and Choy also pointed out these Confucian obediences are based on the relationships of daughter to her father, wife to her husband, and a mother to her. Sociocultural theory describes the process of why women believed their subordinate roles in society were absolute. These Confucian ideals were all that women knew of gender roles and family values during the Choseon period (Jeong & Dreyer, 2003).
Though the novel represents many feministic ideas in relation to marriage, it should not be read and discussed solely from this perspective. This statement is commented by Ramsey who claims that the story is “both a precursor to the modern feminist agenda yet also a reactionary tale embalming Hurston’s tender passions for a very traditional male” (1994: 38). In spite of the fact that the scholar agrees that Janie gains some self-belief and self-realization in the course of time, he still perceives her as a woman who cannot survive without a man by her side who would support her. It seems that she has a strong need to have someone by her side to support her when something goes wrong. This argument is confirmed by another researcher, Jennifer Jordan, who states that the protagonist “never perceives herself as an independent woman” (1988: 115).
Patriarchal societies have existed as long as there have been humans. From the beginning when men would hunt and women would gather, to the present day wage gap, men’s demonstration of superiority is evident throughout history. Women, historically, serve as accessories to men, seen not heard. However, some brave women question their role in society. Edna Pontellier, in Kate Chopin’s The Awakening, conforms outwardly to the societal role of women existing only as mothers and wives but questions inwardly through exploration of her individuality and sexuality, as demonstrated through her relationships with her husband Leonce Pontellier and Robert Lebrun, yet her realization that her growth will not be accepted by others ultimately causes her death.
The story is set in the belief that we prioritize the people we love based on the conditions and choices that come with that person. In doing so it is about wanting what is best for them even when it is not directly in sight while not holding them back but building them up. The main character’s Marie and Callie are two mothers who want the best for their children. From Marie trying to give her kids animals to give them a better childhood than the one she had. Callie is the same way but she has to deal with her son with a medical disorder/ condition that causes him to have behavioral issues very similar to a puppy.
She provides details and logic that back up her statements. She gives relatable examples and alarming possible outcomes. One of Wollstonecraft’s point is that, women are dependent on men because of the way society views marriage. Women from before based their survival on the approval on men, instead of furthering on their educational needs (Poonacha 427). Wollstonecraft, in order to convince her readers for change, gather up what women lack and blames it all back to their lack of education, thus proving her point more.
Prior to Empress Wu’s thrust to power, women were subordinate to men. They were expected to listen to the men in their lives which included their father, their husband and then their son. The women were living in a male dominated society that they did not have the ability to change their status, or be above men in any way. However, that changed following the rule of Empress Wu she showed people then that women were capable of much more than what they were expected of prior to her rule. Although many men were angered by her rule because they worried their power and control would diminish.
Atwood parodies the way some of the religious right may perceive women in which they are important for creating life by introducing handmaids, women who have been reduced into only their procreative purposes. Another technique that was used is when she parodies the way traditional families’ wives take on the names of their husband. In the story, handmaids are named “Of” plus the name of their commander, criticizing how changing the surnames makes it seem like the men are the owners of the women. The way these issues were satirized in the story are effective because of the role of the main character. It would be difficult to not sympathize with a victim of a totalitarian society that oppresses women to a much greater extent than to that of men.
In the Victorian era, gender inequality was daily life. Men were most often the dominant power in a relationship whereas women were expected to be pure and innocent. In an era of arranged marriages, women belonged to their husbands and were attached to their households. However, Wilde has questioned these gender roles and created rather independent and powerful female characters in the play. Though Lady Bracknell and Jack have to give their consent as an approval of marriage to their wards, Gwendolen and Cecily, women show dominance over men in each relationship.
Veronica Tochenor’s article "Thinking About Gender and Power in Marriage," discusses the idea of gendered power in marriages and how this can affect the family dynamic. she conveys about men being viewed as the breadwinners and providers for the family through working, which takes power way from the woman and puts her in a submissive position. Throughout the reading Tichenor conveys about the outdated idea of how power often times rests with he partner that makes greater contribution to the relationship. However, she states “if this conceptualization of power within marriage were accurate, we would expect to see a shift in the balance of power between spouses over the last several decades as women have moved into the paid labor force in great