Most cases of cystitis are caused by E. coli, a type of bacteria usually found in the gastrointestinal tract. When men suffer from a UTI it is typically acquired from sexual contact. Some sexually transmitted diseases, like herpes or chlamydia, also are possible causes. Frequency This urinary problem can be a characteristic sign of a urinary tract infection. Because irritation and swelling reduces the bladder's ability to hold urine, even small amounts of urine cause discomfort.
tapeworm eggs are generally ingested via food, water or soil contaminated with human or animal faeces. each section incorporates hundreds of microscopic tapeworm eggs. these eggs can be ingested via food contaminated with the faeces. once the eggs had been ingested, they grow to be larvae, which could migrate out of the intestines and shape cysts in other tissues along with the lungs or liver. tapeworm contamination also can be caused by ingesting uncooked or undercooked meat from an animal that has the larvae of the tapeworm, grouped in cysts in its muscle groups.
Strep Throat is an infectious bacterial disease that is contagious and is caused by the inflammation and swelling in the lining of the mucus membranes in the back of the throat and the tonsils. The throat gets a burning sensation and a severe irritation, causing a sudden, severe sore throat. Strep throat generally affects the throat and tonsils and makes swallowing hard. Sometimes a sore throat is mistaken for strep throat. Sore throats are mostly caused by a viral infection and not the streptococcal bacteria.
• It may also occur when the joint is directly infected with a microorganism from an injury or during surgery. Joints that are commonly affected are the knee and hip. • Most cases of acute septic arthritis are caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus. • Chronic septic arthritis (which is less common) is caused by organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans. • Once the infection reaches a joint, the joint cannot protect itself from the invading bacterium, virus, or fungus.
C. diff commonly occurs in the healthcare environment through unsafe cleanliness practices. Spores that are passed in the feces can easily spread to food and other objects if a person fails to follow proper hand washing protocol. If a surface is not cleaned properly, the spore may be present in the room for up to
The recent outbreak of food poisoning in South Africa that led to several deaths is Listeria(listeriosis). Listeriosis is an infection that is caused by consuming food contaminated by the bacteria Listeria. The infection can cause serious illness in pregnant women, neonates, adults with weakened or compromised immune systems and the elderly, and is capable of causing gastroenteritis in others who have been severely infected. Most people infected show no symptoms, but the elderly and very young are vulnerable. The outbreak would be discussed under the following Causative organism; Listeria monocytogene, is the organism that caused the outbreak.
Some parasites remain in the intestines, others travel through the intestines to obtrude upon other organs. Tapeworms and roundworms grow in host’s body and lay their eggs there; the eggs are then passed out of the body through fecal matter and are able to inhabit others. Intestinal parasites are more likely to spread in areas with poor sanitation, such as developing countries on the African, Asian, and South American continents.
can hydrolyze urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide, and therefore raise urinary pH. Alkalinization of urine promotes precipitation of magnesium-ammonium phosphate salts leading to the formation of struvite stones, which may serve as a nidus for the persistence of infection or may directly obstruct the urinary tract, there by promoting infection. Proteus is often the cause of bacterial invasion of the bloodstream often associated with diabetes, heart and lung disease, or cancer. Proteus is regarded to be an undesired element of intestinal microflora, as the bacteria may also become a causative agent of diarrhea. Approximately 95% of UTIs occur when bacteria ascend through the urethra and the bladder.
Cryptosporidiosis is a form of gastroenteritis that is caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium. Once the parasites are taken in by mouth, Cryptosporidiosis can occur.  Outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis have been linked with public swimming pools and contaminated water supplies. Cryptosporidium is a type of protozoa, and infects humans through ingestion of their cysts on hands, water or foods that have been contaminated with faecal matter. Once in the human body the cysts are activated by the acid in the stomach which leads to excystment in the small intestine.
1) Explain: a) What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 Herpes Simplex Virus? Type 1 Herpes Simplex virus infects oral mucous membrane. It may causes fever blisters, most adults have antibodies to virus. Most individuals are infected in childhood. Type 2 Herpes Simplex infects the genital tract.
However, it is likely due to an abnormal response of the immune system. Food or bacteria in the intestines, or even the lining of the bowel may cause the uncontrolled inflammation associated with Crohn 's disease. Signs and Symptoms: The symptoms of Crohn 's disease depend on where the disease occurs in the bowel and its severity. These are some symptom examples Chronic diarrhea, often bloody and containing mucus or pus Weight loss Fever Abdominal pain and tenderness Feeling of a mass or fullness in the abdomen Rectal bleeding
Lockjaw, also more commonly know as tetanus or Clostridium tetani, is a desease caused by bacterial infection. the bacterium Clostridium tetani, is commonly found in soil, saliva, dust, and manure and can be introduced to the blood stream via a skin puncture, the bacterium produces a toxin called Tetanospasmin which interferes with muscle contractions, resulting in muscle spasms or spasmodic muscle contractions. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetanus). Tetanospasmin permanently binds receptors, so in that sense it can 't be cured. In the case of advanced tetanus treatment involves antibiotics and paralytics while being put on a respirator, which is needed until your receptors regenerate.