Accrual accounting and Cash flow accounting are critical factors which contribute to judgments and decision-makings that lead to a successful business. It is debatable whether accrual accounting is preferred to cash flow accounting, while there are some financial economists are in favor of using cash flow basic to report. This chapter will first give a foundation of accrual and cash flow accounting, then discuss the advantages as well as drawbacks of both methods and give the conclusion which type of accounting is suitable to record. Accrual accounting is an accounting that revenues are recognized when sales have been made and expenses are recorded when they are incurred, even the cash receipt from the revenue or the cash payment related to
Besides, it is a critical tactic in evaluating the company’s economic prospects and risks and also to protect investment considering the fact that its propels investors to craft and implement productive decisions and plans such as investing in equity or debt securities, extending credit through short or long term loans, valuing a business in an initial public offering (IPO), and evaluating restructurings including mergers, acquisitions, and divestitures, all drawn up with respect to the development and sustainability of the firm's operations towards hitting the market waves aimed at detailing colossal profits. Furthermore, Financial analysis determine the level of business operations, continuity or incoherence of the business; level of manufacturing product acquisition, extent of service expansion, purchase or rent/lease of production machinery and equipment, and the issuance of stocks, negotiation for bank loan and investment of capital; thus allowing the management to decide and implement alternatives to enhance business operations. Conclusively, the core rationale of financial statement analysis is
Under this type of analysis, a number of ratios used for measuring the meaningful quantitative relationship between the items of financial statements during the particular period. This type of analysis is useful in comparing the performance, efficiency, and profitability of several companies in the same group or divisions in the same company. In order to avoid the limitations of Comparative Statement, this type of analysis is designed. Under this method, financial statements are analyzed to measure the relationship of various figures with some common base. Accordingly, while preparing the Common Size income statement, total sales is taken as a common base and other items are expressed as a percentage of sales.
(1) Define the term modified IRR (MIRR). Find the MIRRs for Projects L and S. The modified internal rate of return (MIRR) is a financial measurement of an investment. MIRR can be said as a better version of internal rate of return that can be used for capital budgeting. The problems that occur in IRR can be solved by using MIRR method such as more than one IRR with negative and positive cash flows. The assumption of the project cash flows are reinvested at IRR are not included.
The forecasted cash outflow and inflow for every period must be recognized and additionally the expected discount rate in order to compute NPV. In spite of the fact that the correct value can be identified after project completion but reasonable appraisals can be made by taking a gander at the execution of comparable projects. NPV formula as below where Ct is net cash inflow, Co is total investment, r is discount rate and t is no. of years. The NPV technique empowers companies to change in accordance with the difficulties of working with constrained financial resources.
Under US GAAP, Financial reporting should provide information that is useful to present and potential investors and creditors and other users in assessing the amounts, timing, and uncertainty of prospective net cash inﬂows to the related enterprise. (SFAC No. 1, para. 37) It is interesting to note that this is precisely the information that one would need to calculate the value of an enterprise. Thus, in setting accounting principles, the FASB appears to be emphasizing the valuation role of accounting information over other uses.
3. A Financial Analysis of Tesco 3.1. Specification of the Purpose of the Analysis The purpose of this analysis is to assist interested stakeholders to make sound decisions on investments, objectives and overall strategies with regards to the financial analysis. The data presented in this report even though is past may assist stakeholders to distinguish the operational strengths and weaknesses of Tesco as well as its financial soundness. 3.2.
Statement of financial position helps users of financial statements to assess the financial soundness of an entity in terms of liquidity risk, financial risk, credit risk and business risk. The amounts reported on the statement of financial position are the amounts as of the final moment of an accounting period. INCOME STATEMENT: which is also called a profit and loss account is a financial statement that measures a company’s financial performance over a specific accounting period. Financial performance is assessed by giving a summary of how the business incurs its revenue and expenses through both operating and non-operating activities. It also shows the net profit or loss incurred over a specific accounting period, typically a year.
Work within a multi-disciplinary team in a critical and lead role; identifying chances, predicting production and reserves, checking impact of change to production, cost or schedule, providing economic gain. Being able to influence team members through important tasks and be able to make and inform a personal team work. Provide production predictions and reserve tasks through application of appropriate logical and reservoir simulation techniques on assigned fields. Help coordinate multi disciplinary team, focus and deliver work in order to meet project targets. Provide economic observations to support, justify and optimize existing and future producing tasks and ensure recommended projects meet or pass corporate investment criteria.