Hornbill Literature Review

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3.0 Literature Review 3.1 Hornbill Hornbills from Family Bucerotidae under Order Coraciiformes are found in tropical Africa and Asia. Although they have large bills, they are not closely related to the American toucans. There are 54 species of hornbill worldwide (Smythies, 1999) and only 8 species can be found in Borneo namely Rhinoceros hornbill, White-crowned hornbill, Bushy-crested hornbill, Wrinkled hornbill, Wreathed hornbill, Black hornbill, Oriental Pied hornbill and Helmeted (Hessels, 2008). Hornbills have complex behaviour of courtship which to ensure that the pair is well bonded for a long time, it have various display associated with the courtship which makes them a unique creatures (Gonzalez, 1998). Rhinoceros hornbill or Buceros…show more content…
They help in regenerating our forest. Rhinoceros hornbills also contributed to conservation effort in Borneo as this bird usually being used to symbolize importance of conservation wildlife. Besides, Rhinoceros hornbill is a used as state emblem for Sarawak. It also have important roles in Iban religious ritual or hornbill ritual, the “gawai kenyalang” which the hornbill icon is mystically endowed with life and sent to attack in spirit form the habitations, possessions and persons of enemy tribesmen. Then, if the man success to complete this ritual, it will brings a man wide acclaim (Smythies,…show more content…
With the advancement of nowadays technology, this analysis is possible since it need helps of computer to compute the analysis (Mewhort, 2005). Like other types of statistical data analysis, it has advantages and disadvantages itself. The good part of this analysis is that it does not depend on a particular distribution, and this test will use all the information in the data (Mewhort, 2005). Compared to nonparametric tests, they works based on a transformation to ranks, thus, they need to reduce the data (Bradley, 1968). Other than that, this randomization tests, it may appear hard to be done at first sight and it seems impossible to generalize the conclusions for a randomization test to a population of interest but since the definition of a population is often so broad, thus, random sampling is an artificial possibility. Although it is clear that this kind of test cannot give definite result if only one experiment is being done on no matter how many subjects are being used but it is different when the same experiments get repeated on different groups and the results will be the same to the previous one, thus, people would believe. In other words, it shows that it is important to have a convincing evidence of an effect although truly random sampled are being used since it is demonstrated at different times and different places

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