Hospital-acquired infection can be referred to as a nosocomial infection. This is an infection that’s contracted from the staff and/or area of the healthcare facility/hospital. The staff can spread infection while dealing with the patient/s, as well as contaminated equipment, sheets from the bed and or air droplets can spread this infection. Sometimes the microorganism originates from the patient 's skin micro biota. Nosocomial pneumonia is a nosocomial bacterial infection that is mostly seen in surgical intensive care units (ICUs). It develops fever and leukocytosis in the patients infected (cdc.gov). Primary inhalation pneumonia develops when the organisms bypass the respiratory defense mechanisms. Nosocomial pneumonia shows up in patients …show more content…
Patients must discontinue mechanical ventilation as soon as possible. Staff and visiting peers should properly was their hands, use sterile techniques for invasive procedures, and isolate those that have the resistant organisms. Another hospital acquired infection s urinary tract infections also known as UTI’s. A urinary tract infection occurs when a bacteria invades the urine and grows. The infection usually starts at the site of the opening of the urethra. Signs of this infection in the lower urinary tract infection include: cystitis, dysuria, bloody urine, abdominal pains, and mild fever. Signs shown in the upper urinary tract include: vomiting, chills, nausea, and fevers. Marc3 Children and adults that develop symptoms of a urinary tract infection need to be checked by a physician within 24 hours. Most offices test urine for infection through a urine "dipstick" test. The results of this test is given in just a few minutes of waiting. In addition, a doctor might send urine samples to a lab for culture testing. These results take a few days. This tells the doctor which bacteria is causing the infection and which antibiotics should be used to …show more content…
Someone that has an abnormal urinary tract is at risk for a UTI. As well as people with problems with the body’s natural defense system are most likely to get UTIs. Another common source of infection is catheters, placed in the urethra and bladder. Catheters inhibit the body’s ability to clear microbes from the urinary tract. Bacteria travel through the catheter and thrive in the bladder. A person who cannot urinate usually needs a catheter for more than just a few days (webmed.com). Most UTIs are not serious, but some infections can lead to serious problems. Chronic kidney infections can cause permanent damage, including kidney scars, poor function, and high blood pressure. Some acute kidney infections can be life threatening. The most life threatening infections are due to the infected bloodstream. When the bacteria enters the bloodstream, this is called septic emia. Marc4 The greatest way to avoid these various infections under hospital acquired infections is to keep clean and use sterile instruments in the hospitals. The bacteria will always be around, therefore one must take precaution in order to avoid the entrance of it into the
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A urinary tract infection is caused by bowel flora like E. coli, Enterobacter, and Proteus. Another possible outlet is hematogenous infection, meaning the infection was spread through the blood circulation due to bacteremia (bacteria found in the blood). Also, endocarditis which is an infection from the inner layer of the heart by causative agents: Staphylococcus and
Page 2 of 6 ZOOM U3169752Assessment 2: Academic essay (Critical Analysis)Research Topic: Hospital Aquired InfectionsResearch Question: Neonatal Nosocomial InfectionsStudent ID: u3169752Words: 1767 U3169752 Nosocomial infection refers to an infection that is acquired in a hospital by a hospitalized patient, including an infection that occurs during hospitalization and an infection that occurs after discharge from hospital. But does not include an infection that has been in the incubation period prior to or after admission. Nosocomial infection in hospital staff is also a hospital infection. Broadly speaking, the target of hospital infection includes inpatients, hospital staff,
It found in higher amounts it indicates high blood sugar levels from spillage or kidney damage. 8. Nitrates: Nitrates in urine indicate the presence of a UTI that is caused by a bacteria that makes an enzyme turn urinary nitrates into nitrates. 9. Bilrubin: This is not normally found in urine it is a waste product of the liver and is a component of bile.
Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen, meaning that they can cause infection more frequently and more easily in persons’ with a weakened immune system such as, HIV patients (CDC, 2015). This organism is seen primarily in nosocomial infections, also known as, hospital-acquired infections (Bukhari, 2004). This means that the organisms favors the hospital environment and is easily passed to a person while they are in the hospital. Ways that a person can get a Staphylococcus epidermidis infection is through IV’s, more commonly in drug users, catheters, and artificial equipment (Bukhari, 2004). Skin-to-skin contact can also be a form of getting this type of infection.
Identifying a Researchable Problem For this research project, I have chosen Ventilator-Acquired Pneumonia (VAP) among the intensive care patient population. This is a primary concern and prevention effort with intubated patients while in the intensive care unit. Patients in the intensive care unit often face many challenges during their stay. As an intensive care unit patient, they are often critically ill and are at a high risk for death; however, they are also at a high risk of death related to secondary complications often associated with nosocomial-acquired infection.
Some individuals may have few or no symptoms. And second infections are when bladder infections do not resolve and get worse with the pathogens moving up the ureters to the kidneys. Anything that reduces bladder emptying or irritates the urinary tract can cause UTIs.
Student Learning Outcomes Upon completion of the teaching initiative, undergrad nursing students will be able to: 1. Identify two indications and two contraindications for Foley catheter insertion. 2. Discuss catheter-associated urinary tract infection & apply evidence-based principles for inserting and removal of a catheter. 3.
Physiologically the uterus expands consequently compressing the bladder preventing absolute emptying of it. Because of this urine retention is experienced which facilitates the growth of pathogens and therefore infection (Vasudenvan, 2014). This is also similar to when the older male’s prostate gland enlarges and initiates urine retention (Callaghan, Rosenberg & Rubash, 2007).The individual identified in the case scenario is in fact male and so therefore an enlarged prostate gland could be an underlying factor for the previous urine retention. Having a catheter then would most likely have triggered the
When health professionals are looking to control and prevent an infectious disease, they consult the chain of infection to see where the cycle of infection can be broken. The cycle consists of the microorganism, the reservoir/source, the port of exit, the means of transport, the port of entry, and the susceptible host. Starting with classifying the infection as bacterial, fungal, parasitic, or viral in origin is useful because some bacterium can be killed with antibiotics, some parasites with pesticides, etc. Identifying where the infection stems from is used to create interventions such as water/air sanitation efforts, and properly disposing of and sterilizing medical equipment. Efforts, such as proper handwashing, wearing protective clothing,
It first starts health care professionals observing medical aseptic techniques when handling with patients and following the Center of Disease Control’s guidelines will insure the safety of patients and staff members health. Medical asepsis can be practiced through two different ways: general medical asepsis or isolation precautions. General asepsis concerns all taken measures to keep patients, health care workers, and also the environment sanitary of harmful bacteria. Isolation precautions are carried out to prevent lethal pathogens. General precautions that should be taken include (Craig
Introduction Throughout the twenty-first century, the role of the nurse as a care giver has changed and evolved significantly. Nurses now carry more responsibilities than ever before but one primary goal has remained the same: to provide optimal quality care on the basis of evidence obtained through active research. Research is critical to the nursing profession as a whole, it allows the nurse to advance their knowledge base and skills in order to be the best advocate for the patient (Tingen et al. 2009). The focus of the literature review at hand is: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) in the hospital setting under the themes of hand-hygiene, source isolation and patient education. The student chose to review this topic as the
Patient Risk Factors for Health Care–Associated Infections Transmission of infection within a health care setting requires three elements: a source of infecting microorganisms, a susceptible host, and a means of transmission for the microorganism to the host. Source of Microorganisms During the delivery of health care, patients can be exposed to a variety of exogenous microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa) from other patients, health care personnel, or visitors. Other reservoirs include the patient’s endogenous flora (e.g., residual bacteria residing on the patient’s skin, mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, or respiratory tract) which may be difficult to suppress and inanimate environmental surfaces or objects that have become contaminated (e.g., patient room touch surfaces, equipment, medications). The most common sources of infectious agents causing HAI, described in a
MRSA was also contracted from medical equipment such as catheters which results in urinary tract infections, blood-stream infections caused by central lines as well as pneumonia contracted from ventilators. If these equipment are then used to treat another patient then they will readily be infected. Enterococcus is a natural flora found in the intestinal tract however Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus is the third most common source of HAIs and was spread from the hands of health care works and medical equipment such as electronic rectal thermometer and hospitals beds. Clostridium difficile may cause severe diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis (swelling of the large intestine), toxic megacolon and death. The spores of Clostridium difficile are resistant to alcohol and most hospital disinfectants and are most commonly spread by the a fecal-oral route from the hands of the health care workers (usually after handling rectal thermometers) then to patients or patients environment.