Dilution process: By incorporating inert substances (e.g. fillers) and additives that release inert gases, water or Carbon dioxide during decomposition, and dilute the fuel in the solid and gaseous phases so that the lower ignition limit of the gas mixture is not exceeded, e.g. aluminium hydroxide leaving water [26,13,20]. Fire retardation by Chemical action The most significant chemical reactions that interfere with the combustion process take place either in the solid and gaseous phases: Reaction in the gaseous
For this the mold should be made from high strength preferably of hardened steel. Secondly, for better mechanical properties it is advised that the molded items be annealed. Thirdly, mold release agents if required should only be made from fluorine based compounds to avoid stress cracks. Applications Poly (ether sulphone) has a variety of applications in a vast array of fields. The most successful applications are mentioned below.
This is highly exothermic reaction with the present of multi component catalyst such as molybdenum, bismuth and iron supported by silica. These catalysts can achieve high selectivity and weak activity that deactivate the process slowly. The drawback using these catalysts is the product is easily poisoned by sulfur compound in the reactant gas. Because of the highly exothermic reaction, it can achieve until 670 to 750 kJ/mol of heat reaction. The superficial velocity of reactant gas inserted into the reactor is very fast by the range of 0.4 to 0.7 m/s and it only taken few seconds of contact time from 5 to 20s in the reactor.
Since ferrocene is highly reactive (due to its two cyclopentadienyl rings), AlCl3 can be replaced with a more benign catalyst, phosphoric acid. This reaction will also use acetic anhydride in place of an alkyl halide. Figure 2 shows the mechanism for this
Meanwhile, the explosives and detonators are placed around pusher. When the detonators set off the explosives, the pusher compresses the core with the spherical shockwave of the explosions to a high density, triggering the core to become critical. The neutron initiator inside the core is crushed as the core compresses and releases neutrons. These neutrons cause a chain reaction to occur in the core, which makes the bomb explode with overwhelming power. This type of bomb can carry either a uranium core or a plutonium core and is much more destructive than the gun-type bomb.
The goal of the experiment is to synthesize a bromohexane compound from 1-hexene and HBr(aq) under reflux conditions and use the silver nitrate and sodium iodide tests to determine if the product is a primary or secondary hydrocarbon. The heterogeneous reaction mixture contains 1-hexene, 48% HBr(aq), and tetrabutylammonium bromide and was heated to under reflux conditions. Heating under reflux means that the reaction mixture is heated at its boiling point so that the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. The attached reflux condenser allows volatile substances to return to the reaction flask so that no material is lost. Since alkenes are immiscible with concentrated HBr, tetrabutylammonium bromide is used as a phase-transfer catalyst.
The Use of Bomb Calorimeter in Measuring Enthalpies How a bomb calorimeter works? First, put the object that you want to measure inside the bomb. Once everything is plugged in and set up, the electricity passing though the wires, along with the supplied oxygen will combust the object. When is is combusted, heat will be given out. There will be a stir that helps distribute the heat evenly all through the water.
Steam distillation will allow the clove oil to co-distill with the water, which take place at a least temperature than the boiling temperature of the individual solutions. This is desirable, because the components of clove oils get decompose at high temperatures. Then
Chromic acid is added continuously until a slight brownish colour solution persists, this is to make sure that complete oxidation of borneol in the experiment. Light petroleum was used to dissolve and extract the product from the aqueous layer twice, 15 mL each. Sodium carbonate and saturated solution were used to wash product and separate both aqueous and organic layer in the separating funnel. This is to increase the accuracy when flowing out the aqueous layer. The extracted organic layer was steam bathed to vaporize light petroleum which has low boiling point at 30-40˚C.
The longer the carbon chain of saturated fatty acid, the higher the melting point. Isomeric forms of fatty acids also affect the melting point. Fatty acid in cis form has lower melting point compared to fatty acid in trans form. Next, the polymorphism of the fat also can affect the melting point. β’ crystal form has high melting point compared to α form but lower than β form.