General view: The market of LIH has made many forward strides and is currently serving low income, families. The gap among potential need and supply side is staggering, against a required necessity of 13 -15 million units for the household which earns between the following range i.e. INR 10,000 – 25,000 per month. For the supply side to increase the finance and housing, it is needed to address challenges in existing business environment. But, the gap alone cannot be taken by players so a need to attract low income consumers are necessary.
Life expectancy at birth was as low as 50 years in 2005. Infant mortality rate was 76 per 1000 live births in 2006, while the maternal mortality ratio has remained unacceptably high at 435 per 100,000 live births (Bowen, 2002). Ghana's first post-independence population census in 1961 counted about 6.7 million inhabitants. By 1970 the national census registered 8.5 million people, about a 27 percent increase, while due to unchecked immigration a census in 1984 recorded a figure of 12.3 million—almost double the 1960 figure. The continued unchecked immigration saw the nation's population estimated to have increased to about 15 million in 1990 and to an estimated 17.2 million in mid-1994, with an annual growth rate of 2.2 percent for the period between 1965 and 1980, a 3.4 percent growth rate for 1981 through 1989, and a 1992 growth rate of 3.2 percent.
Many articles has been published worldwide clearly stating the affordability crisis in today’s world when it comes to urban housing. 50 years ago standard of living was also a major constrain in the urban housing. But now that has been almost eliminated or as can be said there are perfect examples for how to avoid the substandard living conditions. The low cost housing is still a major leap to be covered as the cost of material and cost of labor goes on increasing day by day, and thus owning a house is becoming more and more difficult especially for the middle class and the working class. Adding to the woes the recession and its aftermaths are still taking its tolls, however strong the denial is.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY The level of development and poverty situation in Nigeria is quite disturbing. Both the quantitative and qualitative measurements attest to the growing incidence and depth of poverty in the country. The UNDP Human development index ranks 152 out of a total of 187 countries surveyed in 2013, with a life expectancy of 52.5 years and over 45 percent of the population living below the poverty line (UNDP, 2015). Asian countries, such as Singapore, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Malaysia, were in the same economic league with Nigeria in the 1960's with similar colonial legacy and natural resource endowments. Today however, these have recorded significant successes in, the development of their economies.
Instead they obliged the landlords to solve issues beyond their ability. In addition to that, landowners had to take the full financial risk caused by this policy. This law also created a Rent Gap, caused by the low returns for the owners which do not exceed few hundreds of dollars per year. This rent gap has two consequences: the low revenues from the rents, prevent the owners from paying for maintenance, which results in a poor living conditions and sometimes could lead into disasters for example: the collapsing of the building. It is also considered as an urban
The ability to enjoy a long life is a fundamental aspect of human development. Despite the substantial gains in longevity, survival prospect in Nigeria continues to lag far behind other countries. Healthcare service delivery is among the major indicators for measuring development of a country’s economy; for the reason that “a healthy nation is a wealthy nation.” However, despite the importance of health to the development of a nation. National health indicators in Nigeria are possibly among the lowest in the world for almost all measurable indices (WHO, 2012; Jamo, 2013). For instance, life expectancy measures overall quality of life in a country and summarizes the mortality of all ages.
Our country manufacturing industries takes about 18.7 percent of Singapore’s total land area. To expand these industries, more land is required. (Weilun, 2016) Land constraint has always been a major problem in Singapore because of the nation ‘s limited land area, high population and density. Planning in Singapore is about making the best utilization of constrained land resources to make an unmistakable, alluring and vibrant city as the present generation and future generation will enjoy. Long term planning for all our different land needs gives the affirmation that economic and population growth can be obliged.
From then, world population is more urban than rural. According to the data of Global Health Observatory in 2014, there were 7.25 billion population living in the world, of which urban population has reached to 3.9 billion (“Urban population growth”, 2014). Today, 54 percent of the population living in urban areas and it is predicted that urban population will grow to 6.4 billion by 2050, reaching
In India, the demand for home loans has increased extensively in the last decade. Housing is a primary human need next in importance to food & clothing. This takes precedence over other household expenditure and routine needs. Housing, however, is a major expenditure and cannot be funded out of a family’s normal monthly income or savings. The prospective house owner must look for a loan substantial in size and so structured that he can repay it over a longer period of time, in many cases almost ones entire working life.
It accelerated to 2.18 percentage points per year during the 7 years period 2004-05 to 2011-12. Therefore, it can be concluded that the rate of decline in the poverty ratio during the most recent 7-year period 2004-05 to 2011-12 was about three times of that experienced in the 11-year period 1993-94 to 2004-05. 2.1.4 Urban Growth & Poverty Urban poverty in India is becoming more important relative to rural poverty for two reasons. First, India’s urban population is on the increase, especially since 1990. In the 40 years after 1950 the urban sector’s share of India’s population only rose from 17 percent to 26 percent, but in the 15 years after 1990 it is projected to have risen to 29 percent.