188.8.131.52 Thus gross domestic product will influence to the rising household debt in Malaysia? 184.108.40.206 Thus mortgage will influence to the rising household debt in Malaysia? 220.127.116.11 Which independent variables are the most significant towards rising household debt in Malaysia? 1.3 Research Objectives Research objectives have been developed based on the research questions. This is because research question and research objectives must be same in order to get the end result of this study.
Since asset ownership is the main carrier for households to transform current income into future consumption, asset allocation has important implications for the wealth accumulation. Differences in portfolio across households may shape the response to aggregate consumption in changes of macro variable and fiscal policies (Bertaut &Starr, 2000). To sum up, a better and in-depth understanding of household portfolio decision may provide richer insight into household financial theory. Thus, the main research question of this study
George Stigler, a Nobel Laureate in economics wrote about why Americans should have an interest and understanding of economics. He wrote, “The public has chosen to speak and vote on economic problems, so the only open question is how intelligently it speaks and votes” (Stigler, 1970). An economic literate population is beneficial in a democratic society for evaluating the major issues that may be voted upon. Economic savviness is as equally important for everyday household decisions such as buying a house, changing jobs, or how to invest one’s savings for retirement planning. Less than half of graduating high school students have taken a course in economics and rate themselves very low on their understanding of basic economic principles (Walstad, 1998).
Buying a home can cause many changes in an individual’s life. Buying a house makes your taxes get that much more complicated. Buying a house may affect your credit score. The pros of owning a house is building equity. The official definition for equity is “the monetary value of a property or business beyond any amounts owed on it in mortgages, claims, liens, etc.” Another pro is gained tax advantages.
Life-cycle hypothesis are developed by Ando & Modigliani (1963) to help economists to understand the dynamic behaviour of consumers and solve economic decision on retirement savings regarding the rationalization of an individual’s income. The hypothesis is designed to maximize the utility of one’s income over his lifetime. Figure 2.1 Life-cycle model to predict saving behaviour Source: Rayat, R., Scott, S., Mullen, E., & Chen, Y. (2015) Modigliani's Life Cycle Theory of Consumption. Retrieved August 5, 2016 from https://rpubs.com/RAAJ/110886 Figure 2.1 provides a graphical representation.
This often includes most small businesses. The sum of COE, GOS and GMI is called total factor income; it is the income of all of the factors of production in society. It measures the value of GDP at factor (basic) prices. The difference between basic prices and final prices (those used in the expenditure calculation) is the total taxes and subsidies that the government has levied or paid on that production. So adding taxes less subsidies on production and imports converts GDP at factor cost to GDP(I).
This method simply asks people how much they need to "make ends meet" using a direct survey question. The monetary values derived from this question can then be compared with actual household income (resources) after appropriate adjustments for house hold size and composition, to derive a subjective poverty line.26 Recent studies have found this subjective poverty line similar to those that are calculated using traditional, "objective" methods.27 If proved to be a robust approach to determine minimum living standards, the MIQ could significantly reduce the time, effort and resources needed to establish poverty lines in the future. It would also allow for more flexible and frequent inter-country and intra-country poverty analyses. Vulnerability refers to the risk a person or group may have of crossing the poverty line.28-31 It describes the probability of becoming poor and is a function of external shocks and stresses. Some researchers note the dual risks experienced by such groups: that of external threats to livelihood and security (for example, climate, market collapse, etc) and the lack of internal preparedness for times of
Hetroskadascity: the test of hetroskadascity shows the p-value of 0.000 this means the level of hetroskadsacity is accepted. This has allowed the test to proceed to the next step that is to conduct panel data. 3. Houseman test: the result indicates that the p-value of 0.003 which carried out under alternative hypothesis where is accepted for the random effect model. This topic is can be applied to countries that is developing in term of the economics by determining the variable that affect the foreign exchange market and enhancing the home currency strength so the currency has a better value which is good for the Economic of the nation .
Rather looking into the value of individual heritage, the economy impact of historical preservation activities in a particular region should be perceived as well. Yet there is lacking comprehensive analysis from an economic perspective to support the field of heritage conservation. Therefore, this research aims to address the economic impact of cultural heritage on surrounding property. CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND AND LITERAUTRE REVIEW 1.1 Background Due to the shortage of land for development, Hong Kong is under a strong market pressure for redeveloping heritage buildings. With growing public awareness about heritage conservation, some of the conservation decisions such as demolition or
Some essential goods and services have been made either zero-rated or entirely exempt. GST is also sometimes called a Value-Added Tax because it taxes only the value added of good or service at every stage of the supply chain. The value added is often taken to be the difference between the sale price and the cost of production. b) GST is divided into four different parts which are standard rated, zero