EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF HOUSING DEFICIT ON ARCHITECTURE: A CASE OF NIGERIA. Adeyanju I. Boluwatife Department of Architecture, University of Lagos, Akoka, Nigeria, Abstract: Nigeria faces a tremendous shortfall in housing provisions, especially in its urban areas. Research shows that Nigeria has an estimated housing deficit of over 17 million units. Problems encountered by the government and private organizations, tend to limit the attempts to balance the gap between housing demand and supply. The growth of the population especially in the urban areas of Nigeria has assumed an alarming proportion, therefore the provision of urban infrastructure and housing to meet this demand is not proportional, which has resulted in acute shortage of
One US Dollar is equi valent to UGX 1,740, a Pound is UGX 3,200 and a Euro is UGX 2,800 Ugandas housing finanansial sector has showed the overall groth over last 20 years. The total mortgage rate by the end of 2010 reach 4,8 percent of GDP if to compare to the 2009- 3,3% and 2002- 0,3%. The sector is however small in comparison to the increasing housing needs of country and it has principally been serving the middle and high income earners The lower income earners who constitute over 80% of the population have for long been left out of this bracket which is a reflection of the relatively weak foundations made by consecutive governments in building a sound housing industry for the mainly poor and rapidly growing population. This report; i) explores how the housing finance sector in Uganda functions, ii) examines the effectiveness of housing finance in relation to the general housing conditions in the country, and iii) recommends a range of options for both public and private sector intervention geared towards enabling more efficient and effective housing finance services House
This was evident in South Africa, where the government would identify cheap land which was far-off from the urban settlements, thus ensuring racial segregation. Moreover, this resulted in a tenacious increase in informal settlements in urban peripheries, as low income individuals seek for employment opportunities and access to convenient services (Ntema, 2011). The idea of providing sites and services schemes was also criticised, as it was argued by Ntema (2011) that it mainly targeted the working class, being the middle income earners, who had the means to build their own houses. Low income earners who were unemployed being the majority of the South African population, could not afford to do such. Again, the consequences were the increasing rates of informal settlements as a response to having shelter.
2.3.2 Sources of local government revenue in Ghana The main sources of local government revenue in Ghana include rates, lands, fees and fines, licences, rent, investments and grants 184.108.40.206 Rates Property rates entail a substantial part of the total revenue for local assemblies, but the collection of property rates is often not efficient. This is a common problem not only for Ghana, but for many developing countries. The basis for the rate is the resident adult population and immovable properties and the property rate is levied on immovable property (Yeboah and Johanson, 2010). 220.127.116.11 Licences According to Yeboah and Johansson (2010) licences are based on economic activities in the district; this licence serves as the permit for undertaking
They have been termed variously ’soft Rent Control’, ’second-generation’ rent control, rent review and rent regulation” (Arnott, 1995, p.101). The reasons for which governments might choose to implement rent controls cannot be globally standardized and depend on many factors, such as demographic and geographic characteristics as well as the overall national economic prosperity.
This is often done in the private sector in an attempt to create more marketable property and in the public sector it is often use to benefit the community via improvements such as infrastructure, roads, or housing. Furthermore re-development is generally only done when the existing property no longer provides any functional utility or is no longer being used for the original purpose for which it was designed for (Useful Community Development, 2016). In the Johannesburg CBD there are many abandoned buildings as well as buildings currently being underutilised that are no longer aligned with current market trends (Joburg , 2010). Due to the fact that Johannesburg is a large growing city these abandoned and underutilised properties may prove to have high future value if re-developed with regard to emerging market trends. For example in the late 1990’s the Johannesburg CBD was almost entirely abandoned due to the crime wave which had swept the area as a result of the post-apartheid climate.
people tp build their own houses. On the other hand housing market consists of both sale or rent of housing. Different types of supplier and procedure are engaged in both housing and land market. The public sector. In public sector, there are several agencies are involved in developing and supply both land and housing.
Factors That Affect Residential Property Values The patterns of residential development have been an extensive literature under review by different individuals. It has been a scope for decision making, business affiliations, academic exercise and many others. In the real estate market, where there is the buying and selling of land, buildings and other related properties, it is known to thrive under the element known as price/rent. In as much as this is true, location counts for one. The wide spread of residential properties throughout Ghana and now the Wa Municipality is dependent on the rental sector for the supply of housing.
Gentrifications is a process whereby previously derelict and damaged areas are refined and upscaled in order to match the tastes of a growing middle-class an example of an area in Cape Town undergoing gentrification in Cape Town would be Woodstock. Gentrification usually displaces the poor that once lived in these areas as they are unable to afford the property in the gentrified areas. In order to find housing, the poor also tend to send a larger portion of the income on housing. South Africa is made up of a growing middle-class but an even larger lower class, which is why gentrification is not a solution to the housing problem in Cape Town but rather aids to it. Silber in his article maintains the stance that government and city officials have a legislative and constitutional duty to provide adequate housing to the poor.