This essay aims to outline the factors underlying the rise of Italian Fascism after World War One. In fact, while the opportunist nature of Benito Mussolini was significant to the soaring popularity of Fascism, the incompetence of an array of Liberal governments constituted the major part of the issue. Fundamentally, the failure to address a series of political, economic, military and social issues rendered Italian Liberal governments a defamed role in Italian society. In essence, the lack of commitment from the governing elite group – mostly comprised the wealthy and educated bourgeois – jeopardised the political stability of the Liberal State upon the system of ‘trasformismo’ (Carter 2011). Other than that, only a small portion of the Italian population …show more content…
Moreover, despite the military and financial deficiencies, the Italian government insisted on participating in the Great War, leading to economic and social repercussions in the aftermath of the ‘Mutilated Victory’ (Roberts n.d.). Other than the failure of acquiring significant territories through the Treaty of Saint Germain in 1919, the Liberal governments’ inability to compensate for the loss and contribution of soldiers had also stimulated discontent in society. In the economic sector, despite the gradual industrial growth in the Northern region of Italy, there was a perpetuation of rural poverty in the South due to the failure to secure commercial interests for the prevailing agricultural industry (Carter 2011). Furthermore, in the aftermath of World War One, not only that the national debt staggeringly increased to 85 billion Italian lira, but also that inflation soared fourfold of the initial status (Roberts n.d.). Inevitably, an increasing taxation rate resulted in a considerable financial loss among the civilians, especially the middle-class. What is more, the reputation of Liberal governments further deteriorated due to the
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Trade slowed to a trickle due to lack of buyers, unemployment spiked, inefficient leaders were in office and communist ideals surfaced in the people (Course Companion ) . After the First World War ended in 1918 much of the European landscape was in ruins. Economic troubles plagued many countries due to cost of the long war. Canada, at the time still a dominion of the British Empire, had entered the war in a declining economic state which only worsened as the war waged on and resulted in the loss of more money.
The 19th century was a time of unification and centralization for the countries of Italy and Germany. Unification was a very controversial subject in Italy at the time because people’s opinions varied with residency, social class, religious affiliation, gender, occupation, and ideological outlook. Residency, occupation, and political power affected the point of views of the authors the most in the documents. Besides the debate of whether or not Italy should be unified, questions regarding how Italy would become centralized or why Italy should not be unified were a major factor when determining the future of Italy. For example, if Italy were to be unified, would the political system be a republic or monarchy.
The people of Italy and Mussolini himself wanted to boost Italy’s national prestige. Their prestige had been damaged during the first Italian-Ethiopian War when Italy became the first European country to lose to an African nation. Italy’s modernized military allowed for a swift victory. The win over Ethiopia allowed Mussolini to rebuild Italy with the natural resources that the country had available (Document 6). Benito Mussolini gained the support of many Italians from his encouraging and motivating
The poor economic state of these nations represented the one major cause for these new governments. The German nation following WWI depicted this perfectly. Document D, John Keynes, The Economic Consequences of Peace written in 1920 described the economic fallout associated with the Treaty of Versailles. Economic fallout that directly led to the rise of Fascist regimes in European countries such as Germany. After WWI, the allied powers forced Germany to pay significant reparations, destroying the German economy.
In the times of substantial death, political rivalries and staggered economies, World War I and the Great depression created long-lasting and influential effects on the world. While these repercussions affected all the countries, some suffered more than others. Moreover, the consequences led to the rise of new political governments throughout the world. After World War I and the Great Depression, some European countries turned to fascism while others stayed democratic because of strong leadership, economic standings and unemployment, and disillusionment with democracy. World War I and the Great Depression fractured many countries into separate pieces.
The Italian peninsula was politically fragmented and divided, with no strong central government. This division made it difficult for Italy to compete on the international stage, and left it vulnerable to foreign interference and aggression. Italian unification became a pressing issue in the mid-19th century, as the country faced internal turmoil and external threats (Pearson, 22.3). The Italian unification movement was driven by a coalition of liberal and socialist political groups, who sought to create a unified Italian state based on democratic principles.
In this essay I will be highlighting key issue that occurred in Italy during the times when Giolitti served as prime minister, I will discuss his key principles and the ideas that he had manifested and see wether they had good implications on Italy and were successful, or wether the liberal goverment had let down the majority of the Italian population. Giolitti was part of the liberal government under a unified Italy so he had many challenges to face. Many historians might argue that Giolitti was a good prime minister and a successful one too, whilst I do not agree with this Giolitti did bring about many reforms which helped the Italian population. One reform which Giolitti introduced was opening up new banks across Italy, many could argue that these banks allowed Giolitti to be politically
Benito Mussolini made many changes in Italy’s government, and economy. “In February 1923, Mussolini and the Fascist Grand Council introduced the Acerbo Law. This law changed election results. Now if one party got just 25% (or more) of the votes cast in an election, they would get 66%of the seats in parliament. ”(history learning site)
On January 3rd, 1925, Benito Mussolini gave a resounding speech to the Italian Chamber of Deputies proclaiming his authority over the government, the persecution and power of Fascism, and his move towards a dictatorship. Mussolini’s use of “macho” language and rhetoric of law and order in his speech illuminated two of the reasons for his popularity and success of the speech. By appealing to the aggressive masculinity of the Chamber and the rest of Italy, Mussolini was able to increase his popularity and image as a strong leader. He highlighted three qualities of himself during the speech: “a certain intelligence, much courage, and a sovereign disdain for filthy lucre.”
Have you ever heard the saying that Fascism and Communism are two sides of the same coin? These ideologies flourished during the first half of the 20th century and influenced several European states which followed the two ideologies. Fascism was imposed in order to promote powerful and permanent nationalism within a totalitarian state led by a dictator which is ready to engage in conflict internally and with its neighbors. The doctrine of Fascism was drafted in 1919 by Giovanni Gentile and adopted by Mussolini (Mussolini is considered the founder of fascism). Gentile stated, “Everything for the state; nothing against the state” (Heywood, Politics 48).
Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany were similar in that both were dictatorships. Both Mussolini and Hitler came to power through legal means and believed that people were divided into either inferior or superior races. For example, Hitler was obsessed with the Aryan race and called for the genocide of Jews during WWII. In addition, both Mussolini and Hitler favored the wealthy, believed that an individual was meaningless and must submit to the decisions of their leaders, and aimed at self-sufficiency so that each could survive entirely without international trade. Furthermore, Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy “had aimed for prestige and power for their countries, and brought instead humiliation and destruction” (Tarr, R.,
376) This description of Fascism indicates a government that is involved in the lives of its citizens to an extreme degree. By illustrating the government as a “powerful form of personality”, Mussolini alludes to the Fascist characteristic of organicism, where the state is seen as an organic whole being. Mussolini continues his
According to Fascism origins and ideology, the fascist were more effective at propaganda than at actually ruling, the fascist government quite often operated as more of a Mafia-like patronage structure than as an efficiently running state. This despite fascist claims of establishing a modern, streamlined, disciplined system. Often contradictory, fascist thought claimed to reject liberalism and communism and to embrace authority, hierarchy and perpetual action and mobilization. The fascist slogan of “Credire!
In 1919, Benito Mussolini described fascism as “A movement that would strike against the backwardness of the right and the destructiveness of the left.” That “Fascism sitting on the right, could also have sat on the mountain of the center… These words in any case do not have a fixed and unchanged: they do have a variable subject to location, time and spirit. We don’t give a damn about these empty terminologies and we despise those who are terrorized by these words.” Fascism came into prominence in the early 20th-century Europe. It originated in Italy during World War I.
In fact, when Mussolini founded the Milan facio in March 1919, it had no clear-cut goals, except for a belief in action and a stated goal of strong foreign policy (Duggan, 2013). However, when Italy was driven from Fiume at the end of 1920, many Italians began to believe that Italy would have to develop strong foreign policy. In 1921, Mussolini formed the National Fascist Party and began to quickly amass power in the Italian government. One of the methods he did so was to tout