The Islam religion was in charge of most of the Iberian peninsula, however neighboring European countries pushed back when the Muslims tried to advance more in Europe. These neighboring countries took the peninsula from the Muslims in 1250, turning it Christian. They left one kingdom to remain Muslim and that was Granada. In 1480, the Catholic Monarchs prolonged Catholicism in their kingdoms with the Spanish Inquisition. After both the Reconquista and the Inquisition, Catholicism spread throughout Spanish politics and culture, making it the most widespread religion in Spain with seventy to seventy-five percent of the population following it.
Medieval Europe was a time of war and conflict between different peoples. One of the most important military endeavors of the time was called the Crusades, which was a campaign of Christian attempts to take Jerusalem from the Muslims, who occupied it at the time. Spread over several hundred years, many bloody battles were fought over the holy city. The Crusades involved the two largest religions on the continent and impacted a massive amount of people. The battles irreparably changed the lives of everyone they touched, turning peasants to knights and nobles to slaves.
Today I will prove to you that through being an exceptional leader in education, government Charlemagne was one of the best rulers of the Middle Ages. Before we discuss the accomplishments of Charlemagne, let’s take a look at his early life. Charlemagne was born to Pepin the Short and Bertrade in northern Europe, though his exact birthplace is unknown to scholars and historians. In 741 Pepin, who was the mayor of the palace, and in 751 he removed from office the last Merovingian king and was made king of the Franks, a powerful Germanic tribe that lived in the region today known as France. Little is known about Charlemagne 's childhood.
Christians enriched Roman theology and art through cultural interactions. Culture was dramatically changed due to the transformation of religion to Christianity. Emperors constructed many new temples in honor of Christianity. The architecture puts a greater emphasis on the interior and the meaningful visuals instead of the exterior like they used to do. Churches provided social services like schooling and medical care.
During the early 700’s, Charles Martel took over in Latin Christendom, his Frankish kingdom of Christians. Martel’s kingdom was under threat of a rapidly spreading religion, Islam. This led to many battles between Christians and Muslims, but the most significant one was the Battle of Tours, 723 AD. Martel lead his army against the Muslims to attempt to stop them from progressing further into Europe, and he does. Without Christianity, this event would have never happened.
The advantages of crusades included: advancement of education, development of technology, spreading of religion, decreased prices, increase of trade, and introduction of new writings art and literature. On the other hand, its disadvantages include: the black death that went on for a span of over 100 years, increase in corruption, wastage of time, and slaughtering of many innocent
The mighty Roman Empire was divided for easier control in 285 CE by emperor Diocletian. The wealthy eastern empire lived on as the Byzantine Empire, while the western half declined into the middle ages from 500-1500 CE. In an attempt to revive the Holy Roman Empire, the Frankish Empire emerges, ruled most importantly by Charlemagne. In this time period, the Church was able to become higher than the state with a partnership between the pope and the emperor. The Frankish Empire lasted 35 years after Charlemagne’s death, but his three grandsons went to war over who the successor of the Frankish empire was.
Military advancements throughout the Crusades helped Western Culture unite larger areas and unite all kings of Europe. The Pope and popular kings easily united the less important kings and rulers of Europe so that all of the Christian Europeans could battle together against the Muslims. Throughout the process of the Crusades, Christian theology developed as several people could more easily influence all Europeans while they were united. As the men of the Crusades fought for Jerusalem, they spread their religion and publicized European life to the Muslims and people in the Holy Land. However, through that process, the theology slightly changed as it spread to different regions.
Whether known as Charlemagne, Charles the Great, Charles I, or even Carolus Magnus, there is no denying the extent of the first Holy Roman Emperor’s power, influence, and legacy on the former Western Roman Empire. Initially disparaged as an illegitimate claimant to power by the Byzantine court, during his reign, he would go on to reform the vast majority of Western Europe; eventually leading them out of an era marked by warfare, and a near abandonment of cultural achievements and emphasis on education. Despite Charlemagne’s illiteracy, he learned to speak both Latin and Greek, in addition to his native Old High German. Accompanying his proficiency for languages, he was an aficionado of rhetoric, religion, academics, culture, and both the
Europeans conquered and claimed the territories and greatly increased their prosperity and power, and Christianity spread to a whole new hemisphere. Portugal and Spain even presumed to divide the world in two by seeking the Pope's blessing on the Treaty of Tordesillas, which drew a line through north and south through the Atlantic, giving Portugal the lands east and Spain the lands west. Portugal actually lost in the long run because the lands that they "received" were already claimed by empires that did not recognize the Portuguese claims. The French and English did not arrive in the Americas until the 17th century, but when they did, they claimed much of North America in areas that the Spanish did not go. The trade routes that appeared during this era in the Atlantic Ocean were collectively known as the Great Circuit.
Charlemagne was a military conqueror so he used this talent into the service of the church and for taking over most of western Europe and to compel his subject people into converting into Christianity. He sponsored many subtle military efforts. Charlemagne’s military way was first undertaken in the Aquitanian War, then the Lombard War than later on the Saxon War. Charles himself fought two pitches in this Saxon War. So a difference in the political backgrounds of Charlemagne and King Louis was that King Louis was more
However, at the end of the eleventh century, the balance of power began to shift. Western Europe emerged as a prominent power, although they were still not quite as strong as the Islamic empires in the Middle East. Alexius Comnenus also emerged as the new ruler of the decrepit Byzantine Empire. With the threat of complete annihilation by the Seljuk Turks growing even closer, Alexius decided to send out a cry of help to Pope Urban II, the leader of Western Christianity. At the Council of Clermont in November of 1095, Urban responded to this plea by calling on all Western Christians to aid the Byzantines and wrest control of the holy land from the Muslims.