The ancient Romans in the second century maintained elaborate ornamental marine fish ponds, and many of them became quite attached to their pet fish (Higginbotham, 1997; Brunner, 2003). The Chinese developed the practice of breeding and keeping goldfish as early as AD 619–907, and by the year AD 960, there are reports that indicate that goldfish were kept as household pets in ponds (Hervey and Hems, 1948). Since 1276, goldfish were being maintained indoors in fancy bowls, and by 1548, fancy goldfish keeping was a popular hobby throughout China (Balon, 2004). Goldfish keeping in Europe began in the early 1600s, and had spread to Great Britain by 1691. By the 1700s, goldfish keeping was a popular hobby throughout Europe and Britain (Brunner, 2003).
CASTLE OF GOOD HOPE The Castle of Good Hope is the oldest building in the Cape Town and was the centre of life in the early Cape towns as the headquarters of the Dutch East India Company (VOC), and residence of the Governor of the Cape. It also served as a fortress against invasion by sea. Jan Van Riebeeck, the first governor of the Cape established a refreshment station for the Dutch East India Company as they passed on route to the East. Days after they arrived, Jan Van Riebeeck ordered the build of a fort made of earth and wood on the shore in 1652, but it needed constant repair, thus the construction of the Castle of Good Hope between 1666 and 1679 by Commander Zacharius Wagenaer and the Dutch East India Company, and as the Cape gained strategic prominence, the increasing threat of a British attack spurred the colonists to improve their defence capacity. Back then it was located directly at the Atlantic on the original coastline of Table bay, Its position, although unremarkable today, indicates the original position of the shoreline, which, due to land reclamation, has been extensively changed.
The Self-Portrait with Saskia was created by the 17th century Dutch artist Rembrandt van Rijn in 1636 during the Northern Baroque period. The artwork is an three state etching, which is a printmaking process. Rembrandt is known for being the first to popularize the technique and typically used a soft ground allowing for him to “draw” freely. Rembrandt was high experimental and explored many effects such as different weights and colors of papers. The artwork was of both Rembrandt and his wife and was produced two years after their marriage.
Portuguese colonialism is a unique historical phenomenon. The Portuguese colonialists were the first to come to the countries of Africa and Asia, and the latter left from there. The parasitic social structure that they created could survive for 500 years - longer than any other form of colonialism created by the European powers in the New and Modern times. How can this historical paradox be explained? Does it have the character of a fatal accident or, on the contrary, is rigidly determined by any objective laws?
This treaty was created to solve many of the issues that had come to light due to the British occupation of Dutch properties during the Napoleonic Wars and also the issues regarding to the rights to trade that existed for hundreds of years in the Spice Islands. These issues were a treaty that addressed a broad array of issues and did not clearly describe limitations of expansion by either side in the Malay world. The British establishment of Singapore on the Malaya Peninsular in 1819 by sir Stamford Raffles worsen the tension between the two nations, especially as the Dutch claimed that the treaty signed between Raffles and the Sultan of Johore was null and void and that the Sultanate of Johore was under the Dutch sphere of influence. The questions surrounding the fate of Dutch trading rights in British India and formerly Dutch possessions in the area also became the point of dispute between Calcutta & Batavia. Negotiations were made under pressure from British merchants with interests in the Far East in 1820 to elucidate the situation in
Soon, the Portuguese were aware of the importance of Malacca and they started their first expedition to Malacca. The King of Portugal sent Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to associate with Sultan Mahmud Shah. Unfortunately, it turned up many Portuguese were being imprisoned by the Sultan but some were escaped. In 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque decided to conquer Malacca with 1,200 men and 18 ships. Afonso de Albuquerque arrived in Malacca in June 1511 and rescued the Portuguese who were imprisoned in the 1509 expedition.
Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie,VOC) traders, under the command of Jan van Riebeeck, were the first people to establish a European colony (initially not constructed to become a colony)in South Africa. The Cape settlement was built by the Dutch in 1652 as a re-supply point and way-station for Dutch East India Company vessels on their way back and forth between the Netherlands and Batavia (Jakarta) in the Dutch East Indies. These sea expeditions were implemented to further expand the Dutch economy by creating a trade route with the East with regards to spice, silk, bullion, etc. The support station gradually became a settler community, the forebears of the Afrikaners, a European ethnic group who are greatly involved
Srivijaya or Sriwijaya Malay is the long-ruling government on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, modern, affecting most of Southeast Asia. The earliest evidence of its existence dates from the 7th century; Chinese monk, I-Tsing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in 671 for 6 months. The first inscription in which the name of Srivijaya appears also dating from the 7th century, is Kedukan Bukit Inscription around Palembang in Sumatra, dated 683. This government does not exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the development of Java Majapahit empire. Fair is an important center for the development of Buddhism in the 8th to the 12th century.
Parameswara and his followers retreated to the Malay Peninsula. The prince first set-up camp in Muar and then, Sening Hujung, Bertam, but finally he ended up in Malacca circa 1400. However, in recent studies some scholars argued that the Malacca Sultanate was founded in year 1262. As for the name of the kingdom of Malacca, there is both legend and history about the name. In Malay tradition, it told that Parameswara seat under a tree by the banks of the river Bertam.
History would remind us that Thomasites (the name Thomasite was derived from the transport vessel USATThomas [earlier known as SSMinnewaska in private service], which brought the educators to the shores of Manila Bay) were American teachers sent by the U.S. government to the Philippines in August 1901 to train Filipino teachers with English as the medium of instruction. In 1901, the first batch of Thomasites arrived in the Philippines. This batch was composed of 365 from the male demographic while the rest was from the female segment; however, the Thomasites were not the pioneering groups to be deployed by Washington