The two Spanish kings, Carlos IV and King Fernando, were forced by Napoleon Bonaparte to abdicate the throne and replaced by his brother, Joseph Bonaparte. This led to the imperial crisis as citizens were confused about which legitimate ruler and legal policies should they obey at that time. Another factor leading to Spanish American Revolution was actually similar to that of North American Revolution and French Revolution. The weak government raised taxes and tariffs for the citizens and traders. Mercantilism was the main reason for the increase of tariffs.
William Hinton, a born member of the Chinese communist reform force, states how peasants were challenging landlords and money lenders, and how “This increasingly explosive force transferred land from the landowners to the peasants”, as shown in Document 6. After the communist party advocated anti-Japanese sentiment, the peasants subsequently found the confidence to challenge landowners with the knowledge that the Japanese had been successfully defeated in part to the power the peasants held, and in part by communist motivation. This led to the breaking down of Chinese land owning infrastructure as peasants revolted. Hinton’s account of the events is very descriptive and as detailed as someone who lived in China during the time of the peasant revolts. Yet, as an American, he was not part of the peasant class and thus would not have been part of the revolts.
However, for Mao Zedong’s followers by eliminating the old spirit of China and through destroying traditional paintings and styles, Chairman Mao’s ideals allowed and gave way to the visual, performing and popular art in China. Art for the Red Guards needed to target political ideals, ideals that Chairman Mao believed would truly change China into a modern place. In other words, it was Chairman Mao who lit the spark of revolution but it was the duty of the Red Guards and the followers of Mao to do “their part of correcting the distortion of
Document 1 depicts the leader of the Chinese Communist party, Mao Zedong,’s written report that describes peasants’ strong nationalism. His written report uses strong words as “corrupt” and “evil” which describes peasants’ enemies, such as officials and landowners. Mao wanted to uprise the sense of nationalism by mentioning the peasants’ enemies. However, Mao Zedong is the leader of the Chinese Communist Party, so he might exaggerated the state of peasants in order to gain trusts from the peasants. According to document 2, a sense of nationalism is shown in the discussion between a teenaged peasant and his grandfather.
The impact of Lenin’s victory over a capitalist monarchy defines an important change in the way Sino-Vietnamese relations would occur, since the focus on nationalism would slowly convert to communism as the dominant ideology to resist western capitalism. The rise of the communist resistance Ho Chi Minh in the early 20th century defines the overarching influence of Chinese/Soviet communist policies, which he followed by building a military force on the northern border of China and Vietnam in the 1920s: “By late 1924, Nguyen Ai Quoc (Ho Chi Minh) was in southern China, building a new revolutionary organization meant to operate inside Indochina. These efforts culminated in 1930 with the establishment of the Vietnamese Communist Party” (Ward 45). In this historical perspective, it is imperative to understand the impact that the Soviet Union had on Chinese Communism, which had been steadily growing as a counter-ideology to the capitalist nationalism of Sun Yat-sen. These trends throughout the post-WWI era define the growing associations between China and the revolution forces of Ho Hi Minh that would eventually result in the expulsion of the Japanese and French colonies in Vietnam.
The Qianlong Emperor sent a letter to King George III stating, “I set no value on objects strange or ingenious, and have no use for your country’s manufactures” (The Qianlong Emperor 1793). The Chinese refusal of trade with Britain ultimately led to the Chinese loss of the Opium War and allowed the British to gain control over China. Although the most significant causes of European Imperialism in both Africa and China were similar due to the fact that the belief that one country was superior in comparison to another was present in both situations, the most significant causes also differed in which country held the
Imperialism is the economic and political domination of a strong nation over a weaker nation. New imperialism was motivated by the second Industrial Revolution and by the competition in Europe, as many nations wanted to be viewed as powerful. New imperialism focused on trade in Africa and Asia. Europe had economic interest and needed raw materials for factories. This lead to the Europeans to force colonies to send all their raw materials back to them.
European trade had a damaging effect on Indians’ war and diplomacy. The integration of new European goods created many changes in the way Indians fought, including the use of newly introduced weaponry: firearms. These new goods created a dependence on the Europeans for more supplies and ultimately lead to Beaver wars. The presence of disease that was brought over from Europe into Indian country also changed the way Indians fought in their Mourning wars. European settlement and trade caused a devastating change in the way the Indians’ took part in wars, affecting their mourning war practices through disease, new goods creating deadlier wars amongst Indians, along with a dependence on the Europeans to replenish their goods, which lead to Beaver wars.
Mongol armies tore through most of the ancient world throughout the 13th century. Pillaging and plundering every nation in their path, the Mongols left an impressive wake of destruction and death. The Mongols shook the world with the impact of their conquests, but not of their influence was negative. Overall the Mongols brought much needed change in politics and commerce to both China and the Middle East. As the Mongols ravaged the plains of China, they needed to establish a new government to control the newly conquered people.
They included reorganizing the education system, strengthening the economy, modernizing the military, and streamlining the government. A lot of Qing officials interpreted the reforms as threats to their power, and Guangxu’s didn’t bring any change whatsoever. The widespread feeling of frustration erupted into violence, poor peasants and workers disliked the special treatment that was granted to foreigners; they also resented the Chinese Christians who adopted a foreign faith. To show their discontent, they created a secret organization called the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists they then became known as the Boxers. The campaign against Dowager Empress’s rule was called the Boxer Rebellion.