Some parts of Africa were not colonized such as Ethiopia, parts of Somalia and Liberia. European exploration of Africa began at the end of the 18th century. The Berlin Conference of 1884 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa. It is usually referred to as the starting point for the Scramble for Africa. The Berlin Conference took place during the New Imperialism period.
What was the driving force behind European Imperialism in Africa? Between 1500 and 1800 the Europeans knew little about the interior of Africa their presence was to buy and sell slaves for pots, cloth, and weapons and set sail to America. Late as 1870 ten percent of Africa was under Europeans control and most was along edges by 1914 ninety percent of Africa was in control four years later. Due to the countries that held African colonies in 1914 that involved the British, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spain, and Belgian. France and Britain were the main conquer in African colonies, because there conqueror of land in Africa.
During the 1800’s there was a race to claim the abundant resources in Africa and to force imperialism in the colonies. Before these European countries used the west coast of Africa for gold, slaves, and ivory they did not travel into the inside of Africa due to malaria and other tropical diseases until the 1800’s. So what exactly was the reason for European imperialism in Africa? The biggest reasons for imperialism in Africa are the vast and abundant resources available, nationalism, and the industrial revolution. National pride caused the need to expand their countries and become better than the other European countries.
Followed by the first age of Imperialism in the 1600s when the Spanish conquistadors sailed the Atlantic Ocean, the second age of imperialism occurred. Imperialism is when a more powerful country takes over a less powerful country. The European rulers came together in 1885 at The Berlin Conference to discuss the new conquest of Africa. At this time, Africa was viewed as a piece of cake and each “slice” was distributed to each European country depending on its power.In the 1800s right after the Industrial Revolution, the Europeans were colonizing the African territory. As a result, Britain, France and the Netherlands had grown more powerful.
While the Sultans or kings were the ones who had an elevated status. The main source of economic income came from gold, ivory and slaves. Once European nations invaded, both political and economic structures in Africa fell.
Multiple European countries were fighting/competing for African territory. And eventually succeeding and spreading across the entire continent. “By 1914 seven European countries held African countries.” As many of the European countries were fighting each other, they started to come together and instead of fighting they split up Africa into sections where the certain European countries could have that piece of land. The French and British had the most land and were the most powerful. Even though most of Africa got taken over, Ethiopia and Liberia were the two countries to stay independent.
In the 1800s, Europe finally made an attempt to explore Africa 's interior after being frightened by its foreign geographics and diseases. By 1880, Europe fully dictated Africa. Economics and competition were the driving forces behind Imperialism. Both of these components came from the Industrial Revolution; causing Europe’s desire to expand and its power to strongly take and effectively maintain African
The primary need in America was labor work, this was why slaves from Africa were being introduced into America. Before the 16th century, Europeans were not that familiar with slaves trading in the West African Coast but there was African labor used by the Portuguese which were the first to actually use African labor. When slaves began to be transported to America during the triangle trade, it also became known as the Atlantic Slave Trade. The cause of the Atlantic slave trade was mainly shaped by the want for cheap labor as the colonies in America attempted to produce raw goods for Europeans. However, a large amount of labor was needed to create and maintain plantations
The shipping of slaves from Africa to the New World became a huge international business. The mass import of slave into the colonies began after the Indian population was killed by disease and the indentured slaves didn’t want to do the hard work of sugar cane. Slavery didn’t grow as fast in North America as it did in Brazil and the West Indies. Slavery began to grew in the early 1700’s when the House of Burgesses pass a new slave code. Slaves became property.
The slaves became known as the first Old World settlers in the United States. The exploration and settling of the New World by European powers was a long process that tried to incorporate a very large area. African slaves provided labor for this expansion alongside of white laborers who had come to the new world as indentured servants, lured by the offered transit of the Atlantic in return for many years of their labor to European investors. North American slavery evolved differently in each region throughout the centuries, but a unified vision of slavery as the harshest of existence with the constant dangers of disease, violence and death from starvation emerges from the collective histories of American slavery, but were listed as servants in census in1623 alongside whites that were also unfree. 70 to 80% of whites who
The Atlantic Slave Trade was the trading of slaves across the Atlantic Ocean. It took place between the 16th and 19th centuries. It involved mainly Spain, Africa, Portugal, and France. The Atlantic Slave Trade linked Africa to the rest of the Atlantic World. Portugal had a major role in the Slave Trade.
In the late 19th century European Powers were staking their claims to all parts of Africa. With most of the coast already claimed by 1890, the Congo Basin and the Upper Nile was the next focus. At the time, both the British and the French had ideas for a Trans-African Empire; British from south to north and the French from west to east. Eventually their paths would meet. And they did; in Fashoda.
In the fifteenth century, the Portuguese arrived and renamed the island, Fernando Po. In the end of the 1700s, Spain gain a large area of Africa in a trade with Portugal. This area included both Rio Muni and Bioko. Bioko was an important slave trade center, thanks to cocoa plants there, and was one of Spain 's most profitable territories in Africa. However, the island was taken over by the English from 1827 until 1858, this point was officially the Spanish takeover.