The conditions modernism imposed on British culture and society at the turn of the 20th century spurred a literary response to the evolving world writers found themselves. As poets reacted differently to the changing world around them, the form and content of poetry produced by modernist writers varied. For example, high modernists engaged with social questions produced by modernity in a philosophical way, while offering the reader cognizant interpretations of the world around them. This is precisely what high modernist author T.S. Eliot does with his 1911 poem “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”.
In conclusion , modernism is a remarkable literary movement of the nineteenth and twentieth century . Although some critics pointed out that modernist literature is dangerous and incomprehensible, modernists left a distinctive imprint on literature by breaking new literary grounds . This is exemplified by the use of new literary techniques and exploring challenging
Thomas Sterns Eliot who was a great American-British poet, playwright, literary critic and editor was a leader of the Modernist movement in poetry in such works as The Prufrock, The Waste Land and The Hollow Men. He almost completely and single - handedly brought about a revolution in thought, attitude and style in English poetry, and ushered in the modern age. His experiments in diction, style, and versification revitalized English poetry, and in a series of critical essays he shattered old orthodoxies and erected new ones. This new genre of poetry was initiated by T.S. Eliot through the publication of his poem, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock, in 1917, a collection of poems that gave birth to a new genre of poetry – modern poetry.
The important effect of the book The Empire Writes Back has been the recognition of the role of literary creativity in the former colonies. As theorists, they might be slow to acknowledge the role of specific literary works such as V.S. Naipaul’s The Mimic Men (1967) and Samuel Selvon’s immigrant novels The Lonely Londoners, Moses Ascending and Moses Migrating. They do provide some account of discussion of the various ‘models’ of post-colonial theory. The remarkable upsurge of writings in countries involved in the decolonization process and the theme of resistance since the Second World War, from third world countries has led readers worldwide to see that their own communities could produce writings of great power and relevance, if in the language of the former colonizers.
ELIOT 'S MODERNISM ' ' A VOYAGE FROM PAST TO PRESENT ' ': T. S. Eliot 's poetry sheds light on the modernist literature and determines the framework of the modern poetry through a plenty of innovative techniques. Principally, impersonality roots in Eliot 's poetry; which means an escape from personality and emotions (Underhill 170). His theory of impersonality in poetry is a strategy of avoiding confession (191). Ackerly draws attention to Eliot 's poetry 's paradoxical condition by claiming that his verse encapsulates the most harrowing personal feelings and presents the most agonizing image of the individual mind in spite of his insistence on impersonality (Ackerly 8). It can be said that his theory of the impersonal nature of art is
The early pioneers are Henry Derozio, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Toru Dutt, B.M.Malahari, S.C.Dutt and R.C.Dutt. They were the trend setters who began to poetize the Indian echoes in a foreign language. Although their efforts were imitative and derivative of English poetry, they successfully gave a new direction to Indian poetry in English by writing on Indian history, myths and legends. This phase is called imitative phase. The second phase of poets is the assimilative.
A poem represents the deep feelings and enables the poet to express his/her emotions of the poet as a response to an external stimulus. William Wordsworth (1770-1850) was a well-known romantic poet and one of the pioneers of the romantic period and he subsequently had a big influence in the Romantic era in English literature. A crucial milestone that affected poetry was the era of romanticism, which arouse in the end of the 18th century in Western Europe. This period refers to philosophical, literary, international artistic and intellectual movement. This movement was due to the industrial Revolution and it redefined the ways the people in Western culture perceived themselves and their world.
“Eliot’s Waste Land is I think the justification of the ‘movement,’ of our modern experiment, since 1900.” (Pound, 1950). Just as human action is an output of hidden motives, the opulent type of poetry contains concealed meanings. This undoubtedly is the most conspicuous way to characterize modernism for a novice reader. Modernism was a metaphysical and cultural movement that emanated from an immense transformation in Western society in the late ninetieth and early twenty centuries, and it is accepted that T.S Eliot’s ‘The Wasteland’ was the dawn of Modernist poetry and literature. Modernism was a contemporary approach of thinking, a regeneration of the psyche, an advanced –ism that was the result of urbanisation, technological and economic
T S Eliot in a Nutshell • Biographical detail Thomas Stearns Eliot (26 September 1888 – 4 January 1965), most commonly known as T.S Eliot is a towering figure of the twentieth century who has taken up various roles in his literary career as an essayist, playwright, publisher as well as a literary and social critic in English literary field. To add an extra feather to his literary achievement, Eliot was awarded the Order of Merit and the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948 for his immense innovation and contribution to modern day poetry. Though he was an American by birth born in St. Louis, Missouri, one of the members of an old New England family, Eliot declined his citizenship and settled in Britain where he became a British citizen in 1927. He died on 4th January 1965, at his home in Kensington in London and was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium. • Works The Waste Land (1922), The Hollow Men (1925), Ash Wednesday (1930) and Four Quartets are some of his well known poems.
The dramatic monologue is a poetic tool invented and practiced most famously by Robert Browning, Alfred Tennyson, Dante Rossetti and other poets of the Victorian age. Browning chose to experiment with this new poetic form, moving away from the ‘expressive’ moment contained in lyric poem to the ‘eloquence’ that lay at the heart of drama. In an essay entitled On Poetry, John Stuart Mill distinguishes between the two terms, poetry and eloquence- ‘Eloquence is heard, poetry is overheard. Eloquence supposes an audience: the peculiarity of poetry appears to us to lie in the poet’s utter unconsciousness of a listener.’ He states that eloquence pours itself into other minds seeking ‘to move them to passion or to action.’ Poetry is therefore the result of solitude, while eloquence is the effect of interaction with the world; this brings in the frequent Victorian dilemma of whether poetry should exclude or include the outside world. By choosing to adopt this dramatic style, Browning began experimenting with the middle class, democratic style of