Many Enlightenment philosophers believed that government’s job is to well take care of all of its citizens, not just people with power or who are important for the government. This is where modern democracy came from. In modern days, many of the countries in the world are democracy. The Enlightenment brought political modernization to the West, introducing democratic values and institutions and the creation of modern, liberal democracies. John Locke, one of the most influential philosophers during the Enlightenment, based his governance in social contract theory.
In the first section of Common Sense, Thomas Paine characterizes government as he sees it, which is still an influential viewpoint. His characterization is perhaps best summed up in his own succinct words: “government even in its best state is but a necessary evil.” These words speak measures to his attitude towards the fundamental nature of government—an attitude that shaped a political party in his time that has evolved over time with the core concept relatively intact. For Paine and modern conservatives alike, government is only rendered necessary due to the inadequacies of moral virtue in running a society. To illustrate this concept, Paine supports his idea with a hypothetical island. When a society develops, it will become necessary for a government to compensate for the eventual defect of moral virtue in individuals.
John Locke believed this as well, that the citizens should be able to change the government if needed. However, this also showed what Thomas Jefferson was going through. He was not only founding a government, but he was rebelling against one. He disliked the idea of monarchy, and giving total control to the government. This further shows that John Locke had an influence on Pres.
"Natural rights are those which appertain to man in right of his existence. Of this kind are all the intellectual rights, or rights of the mind, and also all those rights of acting as an individual for his own comfort and happiness, which are not injurious to the natural rights of others." --Thomas Paine, Rights of Man, 1791. The Bill of Rights were derived from the English Bill of Rights. The Founding Fathers and the public felt that the constitution didn’t set up enough boundaries for the government, they felt that the government would assume too much power and take away the “Natural Rights” of the human.
The importance of both the role of state and society is made clear through the works of liberal thinkers, deeming these roles the most crucial elements in not only securing individual freedoms but also for future progression. Overtime, the interpretation of these roles differs in defining where the role of society and state take place and how each must contribute to each other or matters in which the state should or should not involve itself. The concept of establishing and defining roles of both society and state can be seen in John Locke’s Treatise of Civil Government (1690). In his work, Locke introduces this concept by using the law of nature. The law of nature states men are in a natural state of freedom and equality.
The traditional view of a king was to rule a kingdom and sort out the injustice that the people wanted justice for. Not only did a king control the laws, politics and economics of their kingdom, the king was seen as strong enough to help lead their country into battles and come back with a victory. Henry was under pressure to make the Tudor family a successful line of Kings to help carry on a legacy, daughters were not part of his plan.
In our country, we have a pretty decent government. Even though there will always be people who don 't agree with the current government is important to have a strong, stable government to protect people and their property, make and enforce laws, and it creates less contention and rebellion (Locke). It is important that we have a republic democracy in America, where the people can have a say in how our government is ran and who it is ran by. Having a government is extremely important. According to John Locke, in order to protect people’s natural rights, a government must be in place and people must be subject unto it.
The Founders believed that a republican government is a type of government where people have the power to govern through representatives. People are able to delegate representatives to project their voice. The main purpose of a Republic is to serve the common good in which both citizens, representatives, and the government leaders work for common welfare. The Founders, including James Madison, thought a republican government was the best type of government for the colonies. Madison helped to create our 2nd constitution (which replaced the first constitution, The Articles of Confederation) and was later thought of as the “Father of the Constitution”.
Bacon pointed out the need for clear and accurate thinking showing that any mastery of the world in which man lives was dependent upon careful understanding. The understanding is based solely on the fact of this world and not as the ancients held it in ancient philosophy. This new modern scienceProvides the foundation for modern political science. Key words: Bacon ,Elizabeth, the Renaissance, England, monarchy, scholastic Philosopher, inventor, science, nature, empirical method. There are certain periods in worlds history which have a special attraction for the intellectuals and moral development of mankind.
Individual freedom is the core of liberalism, while social equality is the core of communism. Although these forces seem incompatible, individual freedom and social equality are equally important, and a government should not promote one of them and suppress the other. In fact, they can be balanced in a liberal democratic system, due to the flexibility of this system, which allows changes. Liberal democracies were born mainly for two reasons: limiting the arbitrary power of a state and protecting the individual freedoms of every citizen with a judicial system. Thus, the main aim of a liberal democratic regime is to promote freedom.