(5) Considered a symbol of his power and desire to rule all of Japan, he ordered the construction of Osaka Castle, later ordering the restoration of the Imperial Palace.Toyotomi Hideyoshi impacted Japanese government in many ways. He acknowledged that an unstable peace and constant uncertainly had led to the practice of samurai farming and peasants to take up arms. To combat this, he issued decrees that defined the social status and duties of all Japanese. He banned everyone from having weapons besides samurai. Samurai were ordered back to towns.
In spite of Fukuzawa’s piece, what does he seek to accomplish politically and through performativity? Yukichi uses performativity to add depth to the meaning of civilization and how the spread of westernization is inevitable relating it to that of a disease. Yukichi also uses his piece to stress the idea of social darwinism (survival of the fittest), and how Japan must leave the stubborn countries of China and Korea behind or they will be likely “wiped out”. During the Meiji Period (1868-1912), Fukuzawa Yukichi uses “On Leaving Asia”, to draw awareness to the process of restoring wealth, power and civilization to the Japanese people. He argues for bunmei, and inherently believes that Japan will be left behind if direct changes aren't made.
The impact of Lenin’s victory over a capitalist monarchy defines an important change in the way Sino-Vietnamese relations would occur, since the focus on nationalism would slowly convert to communism as the dominant ideology to resist western capitalism. The rise of the communist resistance Ho Chi Minh in the early 20th century defines the overarching influence of Chinese/Soviet communist policies, which he followed by building a military force on the northern border of China and Vietnam in the 1920s: “By late 1924, Nguyen Ai Quoc (Ho Chi Minh) was in southern China, building a new revolutionary organization meant to operate inside Indochina. These efforts culminated in 1930 with the establishment of the Vietnamese Communist Party” (Ward 45). In this historical perspective, it is imperative to understand the impact that the Soviet Union had on Chinese Communism, which had been steadily growing as a counter-ideology to the capitalist nationalism of Sun Yat-sen. These trends throughout the post-WWI era define the growing associations between China and the revolution forces of Ho Hi Minh that would eventually result in the expulsion of the Japanese and French colonies in Vietnam.
Two major religions make up Japan, Shinto and Buddhism. The Shinto religion arose first, whereas Buddhism was a result of radiating popular culture in the mainland around 600 CE. The two religions had a rough as the most powerful rival clans fought wars amongst each other defending their religious positions. When the Fujiwara clan accepted Buddhism, it proved that the Shinto and Buddhists had started influencing each other. The government capital was moved to Kyoto in 794 in order to distance the court from religious influence.
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and the first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, and has been one of the most significant figures in Japanese history. Besides being such a successful and powerful ruler, Ieyasu had immensely changed the way Japanese society was structured and organised. From 1603-1608, Tokugawa began the modernisation of Japan. He became the first shogun who had more power over the emperor, and started changing the ways of Japan’s trade, economy, agriculture and social hierarchy. Ieyasu’s ‘main political goal was to cut off the roots of potential dissent and rebellion’ (University of Colorado, 2015); he did so when his army was victorious at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600.
“Following his victory in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, however, Tokugawa Ieyasu swiftly consolidated power from his heavily fortified castle at Edo. From the beginning, the Tokugawa regime focused on re-establishing order in social, political and international affairs after a century of warfare.” (History.com). This example shows that he seized power after the battle of Edo Castle and that he was able to become Shogun and establish social order. This was the first step of ending the Sengoku Jidai when he created the shogunate. “He strengthened the social class lock and the isolation laws Toyotomi Hideyoshi made.” “He banned christianity forever, and instead everyone believed in Buddhism and Shintoism”(need) As ruler of Japan, he had complete control, no stress required.
She began following Japan’s lead in sending delegations, and school groups abroad to study constitutional reform and western culture.5 This action westernized China politically, as in 1906, Empress Cixi promised the Chinese people a constitution and representative government, and announced that China would be transformed into a constitutional monarchy with elections. Although this action never successfully occurred, Cixi tried to have Chinese citizens elect monarchs as their leaders, rather than having the emperor/ empress be appointed based off lineage.7 In this reform, western influence is seen politically for the first time under Cixi’s rule. She westernized the government of China by trying to abandon the monarchy of blood lineage, and turn it into a constitutional monarchy with elections, just like Japan’s. Cixi changing of the Chinese government in 1906, although not lasting, was shocking in China, as the government and laws rarely changed, especially incorporating western
In the seventeenth century, Japan was recovering from the Warring States period, a period of war and strife. The Tokugawa clan, after seizing power at the start of the century, soon embraced isolationism as their social policy, a policy that historians later called “sakoku,” or “closed country” policy. Under sakoku policy, Japanese natives were forbidden to leave the country unlicensed, and foreign trade was restricted, with European trade cut out entirely (Ohno). Tokugawa Iemitsu installed the policy due to the growing Christian population in Japan, as a way to limit its influence. Sakoku policy in the seventeenth century largely succeeded in preventing Europeans from becoming involved in their country by reducing the religious influence of
There has almost always been conflict between China and Japan and since the early 20th century conflictss between these two countries had been escalating. And in the eyes of Japan, China was the perfect place for their idea of expansion. In 1931 the Japanese invaded Manuchuria in northeast China and establish Manchukuo, a Japanese state. The League of Nations doesn’t acknowledge this as a legitimate state and wants the Japanese troops to leave, but instead they leave the League of Nations. Japan soon expands and gains control of much of northern China.
The head of Unit 731, Shiro Ishii, was a Japanese Lieutenant, who held a postgraduate in Bacteriology from the Kyoto Imperial University. Ishii thought that using biological weapons was more cost productive than “building, manning and maintaining huge conventional forces” (Source A, page 23) During the Japanese occupation of China, Ishii’s influence in the Japanese army grew. His persuasion of the army lead to the ‘Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory’ being commissioned in 1932, with Shiro Ishii in charge. In Manchuria, anti-Japanese behaviour was an offence and perpetrators could be arrested. Most of those arrested were sent to the labs, to be experimented upon.