China has been a “communist” state since 1949, but the system itself has changed immensely with gradual reforms of Deng Xiaoping after Mao Zedong’s death in 1976. Mao Zedong started the soviet model in 1949, that consisted of three stages. Stage one began on October 1 of 1949 and was called “Lean to One Side.” The main goal was to get rid of opium, prostitution, redistribution of land, get rights for women, and nationalize industry. Mao used the Soviet Union to help form a communist country. Apart of Mao’s communist vision was focusing on heavy industry to build up China and improve the military. Part of his view was also communist ideological education and the “Thought Reform.” The Hundred Flowers Campaign was also part of stage one, where
The Great Leap Forward took place during 1958 and 1960 (C). Mao introduced the Great Leap Forward as a means to catch up to the West’s development through agricultural and industrial development. The key factors of this movement were Propaganda, the introduction of communes and hard labour. While this was claimed to be in the interests of the Chinese population, the manner in which Mao lead this campaign, in addition to its devastating consequences, cannot prove these claims true (A). Mao’s goals for China were impossible to achieve as he believed the country could make a century’s worth of achievements in as little as a few decades (B). Although Mao claimed that these achievements were to be accomplished in the interests of the Chinese population, it is clear that the damage caused by the Great Leap Forward was too extreme to reflect a policy which was in the interests of the people.
Money. Friends. Brains. Ji-li had everything, until the Cultural Revolution. In the beginning, Ji-li loved Mao and also loved his ideas for China because he said if they destroyed all of the four olds, then China would reach its full potential. Ji-li even acted as a red guard as well, naming stores or places that had four olds. However throughout the book, Ji-li’s point of view of the cultural revolution changes. Her father is detained, her house gets searched, she is excluded from activities, and she had to choose between her family or Mao. In Ji-li’s memoir she explains about the cultural revolution and about Mao.
Often revolutions in history portray ruling powers being forcibly removed by a group intent on a new power structure setting up an "improved" system. France's Reign of Terror and China's Cultural Revolution were harsh responses to similar conditions resulting in political, economic, and social changes in those societies. Both revolutions were led by powerful, ruthless leaders and shared important similarities as well as distinct differences in their leadership style. During the French Revolution, Maximillian Robespierre was a leader during the period known as the Reign of Terror. Robespierre initially preached the ideals of equality, liberty, and fraternity he ultimately utilized violence in an effort to control the French citizens. Like Robespierre,
America. This was a magical name on the eastern coast of the province of Fujian, where both of my parents were born. My parents grew up during the Cultural Revolution, a movement initiated by Mao Zedong’s belief that his Communist Party was shunting him aside and propelling the country in the wrong, inegalitarian direction. Mao attempted to reassert his authority over the Chinese masses by enforcing his ideology. He mobilized the Red Guards, paramilitary groups of students, to destroy the Four Olds—old ideas, old culture, old customs, and old habits. Gangs of teenagers in bright, red armbands and green military uniforms roamed the city streets, attacking anything that was suspected of being bourgeois or feudal. They publicly humiliated, beat, and in some cases, murdered innocent civilians, intellectuals, party officials, and teachers. With this bloodshed, Mao ultimately hoped to create a new society where there was no opposition against him and no gap between urban and rural, and laborers and intellectuals.
Though there were some success regarding social equality, there was little to no economic growth and the lack of direction of the nation caused widespread starvation, which took the lives of millions. The Great Leap Forward was severely mismanaged and was the leading cause of The Great Chinese Famine. Mao created new standards for farming methods in an attempt to make it a more efficient process and bountiful. He called for the implementation of new and “improved” techniques such as crowding seeds in plots to grow more and planting seeds very deep under the ground to reach the more nutrient dense soil. These methods caused many failed harvests and a dire lack of food for the people living in the communes. The culmination of natural disasters
Mao Zedong was a Chinese communist leader and is the founder of the People’s Republic of China. Mao was born on the 26th of December 1893 into a poor peasant family in Shaoshan, in Hunan province, which is a province in central China. After becoming a founding member of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921, Mao has greatly influenced and shaped China into what it is today. He is regarded as one of the most controversial leaders of the twentieth century as a result of the widespread impacts and hardships that the Chinese people had to endure as a result of his policies and reformations. Firstly, the impacts and effects of the Great Leap Forward, which turned out to be a disaster, killing between 20-40 million people and ironically sending China backwards. Secondly, the Cultural Revolution and the chaos and disaster this had on the Chinese population, especially through the “Down to the Countryside movement” and finally, the Cult of Mao and what the idolisation and glorification of Mao meant for the future of China.
Coined during the French Revolution, the terms left and right refer to the seat arrangements in the Estates General. The delegates sitting on the left opposed monarchy and supported the establishment of a republic, while those sitting on the right advocated conventional institutional arrangements, including monarchy. After the French Revolution, the application of these two terms was generalized. The term “left-wing” refers to those whose political advocacy is radical and often revolutionary, while the term “right-wing” refers to those whose advocacy is conservative and sometimes reactionary. In China, these terms can be used to describe the practices of Marxism.
In August 24th of 1966, one of the most famous Chinese Writer: Lao-She was discovered in Taiping Lake. A day before, he was criticized as a ‘monster’ and was sent by force to the Confucius Temple for criticism. Then he was taken back to the Federation. In both places he was lambasted and severely beaten. Later, his corpse was quietly retrieved from the water and cremated, but the mystery of his death still confuse nowadays Chinese deeply. There are dozens of guesses about the cause of his death. The only certain fact people know about it is Lao-She’s body was full of scars and wounded badly. The government declared Lao-She suicided, but his wife and children suspected it. They thought he was murdered because Lao-She didn’t show any signal of suicide.
In this essay, I will be discussing on the birth of Kitsch, whether it is historically dated, having made its appearance hundred and fifty years old, or is it as old as art itself. As we know, there are no definite answer or explanation as to when and how it came about. There are arguments that kitsch has accompanied art throughout its history. For some, it is a distinctly modern phenomenon.
At the inception of the Chinese Red Army, a guerrilla unit that existed after the defeat of the first great revolution. This happened during a period of economic and political stability, particularly in countries that adopt a reactionary capitalist and also during the period of reaction in China. Red Army political power exists only in areas that are remote, mountainous areas and are scattered and do not receive outside help. Economic and cultural situation in the revolutionary base areas underdeveloped compared with those in the Kuomintang areas. Revolutionary base areas embrace only rural areas and small towns. These areas are very small and do not grow larger in the beginning. In addition, they are fluid and do not move, and the Red Army has no really consolidated bases. The Red Army is small, weak arms, and have difficulty getting supplies such as clothing, food and bedding. To overcome this, Mao has set a number of strategies that will turn this deficiency as an advantage to the Red Army. Among his strategy to the Red Army are:
Legitimacy in authoritarian regimes is often explained merely through the economic performance of the country: economic growth is deemed to be the main basis for legitimacy. This is arguably an oversimplification of the issue of legitimacy in authoritarian countries, like China. China, in fact, has been the object of debate and research regarding the ways the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) manages to hold its grip on power. Scholars have therefore challenged the equation “legitimacy=economic growth” by adding other elements to the formula and presenting new methodologies to research legitimacy in China. This literature review gives an overview of the debates on how to measure legitimacy and the strategies the CCP uses to build support. The last
Lao Tzu, also spelled Laozi, was a philosopher in China in the sixth century BCE. He is very influential in the East also has some influence in Western culture. Little is known about his life and history, but his writings that have survived the trials of time are insightful and provide humanity with extensive knowledge of his personal beliefs and intuitions. His writings have become so influential in Asia that an entire religion has been based off of them -- Taoism.