The Peloponnesian War The Peloponnesian war like most wars started because one nation was scared that another nation was getting too powerful. In this situation those two nations or city-states were Athens and Sparta. Both of these city-states were once very good friends, they had actually fought side by side during the War between Greece and Persia. Most of what we know about this war comes from Thucydides, who was around when the war was happening.
Sparta had set up two Kings for Polis. Although the Spartans were strong, the Gerousia and Ephors were positions they needed to uphold to become political to create any change in society. Yes, the Spartan had a strong military which made for powerful soldiers, but the real control was in the hands of becoming an Ephor, for the non-aristocratic Spartans, (Brand, n.d.). This was the only way those Spartans could be involved in politics. Aristocratic Spartans were Gerousia.
Following the departure of the Persians from Greece, Sparta attempted to prevent the rebuilding of Athens’ walls. It was suspicious of the Long Wall project, which would fortify the route from the city to the harbour of Piraeus. However, the Spartans were rebuffed by Themistocles, who stated that Athens would see herself as an equal partner in the alliance between the two states. Afterwards, in 464 BC, when an earthquake in Sparta caused the helots to revolt, various Spartan allies, including Athens, sent forces to help quell the rebellion. However, the Spartans, fearing that Athens would side with the helots and turn against them, dismissed the Athenian force upon its arrival, while allowing the forces of other allies to remain.
After the formation of the Hellenic League which successfully repelled Persia from Greece, the alliance broke up into two major forces. Thucydides claims “at the head of the one stood Athens, at the head of the other Lacedaemon, one the first naval, the other the first military power in Hellas.” (1.18) Athens and allies became the Delian League, which continued fighting in Asia Minor in order to conquer and liberate Persian controlled Greek states, and Sparta and allies formed the Peloponnesian League. However, once peace had been established with Persia in 449, the Delian League was reformed and Athens held hegemony over the allies and utilized them as tribute paying subjects.
The Athenians regarded the wars against Persia as their greatest and most characteristic moment. However The events that take place between the defeat of Darius constant tension with sparta would soon lead to the peloponnesian war. The battle of Marathon (490 BC), is definitely one of the greatest battles to affect greek history. Had the Athenians lost, all culture of what we may know of greece would be lost if it weren 't for Themistocles. Themistocles was the person who developed the most advanced weapon at its day.
Unfortunately these two things were things that Carthage lacked. The Roman army was much larger than the Carthage army which gave them an immediate advantage over carthage. Rome's lack of knowledge and strategies were apparent when Carthage beat them in the first punic wars easily, but their army size and growth of knowledge led them to victory in the third. If the two armies were the same size, the Carthage army would destroy the Roman army because even with the Roman improvement they would not even come close to the knowledge and strategies that Hannibal had studied all of his
The third reason Creon illustrates the tragic hero of Antigone is because his son Haemon and the citizens of Thebes disagree with him. Haemon thinks Creon should not “be so single minded, self-involved or assume the world is wrong and [he is] right. By stating this, Haemon shows he believes Creon should take others opinion into account (Pg.95). The people of Thebes “mourn for this young girl,’No woman,’ they say, ‘has ever deserved death less,” however, Creon does not listen to what the city believes
When the latter are well-educated and the former are disposed to deal justly, controversies and strikes can never occur, nor can the minds of the masses be prejudiced by demagogues and controlled by temporary and factious considerations. (qtd. in Zinn, 257) In order to educate the slaves, they needed to end the segregation and slavery which became one of the most important causes of the Civil War. The Civil War, then, resulted in the freedom of slaves.
For Spartans, cowardice was a weakness, something to be scorned on. To flee from battle was cowardice. Add this to the fact that Spartans were trained for war. Their ideals of discipline, bravery, and honor were more important than death. To die a
As Thucydides puts it “Athens [is] in name a democracy, but in fact a government by its first man.” Athens becomes a tyranny even if benevolent (57). In this case, Pericles’ interests fall in line with Athenian interests, but later demagogues will not and cause disastrous consequences for Athens. For example, Alcibiades will successfully argue for the Sicilian Expedition to “this command” to win glory for himself (117).
Furthermore, Solon developed trade and manufacture in Athens, largely through attracting skilled craftsmen to settle there. He especially encouraged pottery since Attica had excellent clay for ceramics (88). On the other hand, Sparta had no fortifications, claiming its men were its walls. Therefore, Sparta is remembered for being a military state always ready for war, but not against other city-states so much as against its own subjects (89). Spartan government, in sharp contrast with the democracies found in other city-states, kept elements of the old monarchy and aristocracy.
This war was between the Athenian empire and the Peloponnesian league. The war was divided into 3 distinct phases, the first phase was the Archidamin war, during this phase Athens ordered attack, after attack after attack on Attica. the second phase was the Sicilian war and the last and final phase was the Ionian (Decelean war). The main reason for the start of this war was because the Spartans were scared that the Athenians were growing in power and that they controlled most of the Mediterranean region form Greece to Hellas. According to Thucydides, this was not the only factor that caused the war.
In 338 BCE, Philip’s army defeated the allied forces of Athens and Thebes in a battle at Chaeronea. This defeat forced Athens to enter into the so-called League of Corinth, ostensibly a pan-Hellenic alliance aimed at opposing the power of Persia, but actually an organization that gave Philip unprecedented authority over Greek