In turn, there were scarcely any large towns or schools, and their literacy rate was low in comparison to the religious Puritans in New England. Their society suffered in the lack of education. Likewise, the New England and Chesapeake colonists began to settle in vastly different environments, ultimately shaping and diversifying their
People were tired of being poor and persecuted for their beliefs. All of this made people decide to settle in the middle colonies. The English created New York and New Jersey from former Dutch territory. They captured the land from the Dutch and established colonies. These colonies attracted people from all over, including the Dutch, Swedes, Finns, and Scots because of their generous land grants and religious tolerance.
The farmland was so large that they needed slaves and servants to work on the land. This need for labor brought about the slave trade in which African slaves were sold at high prices to rich plantation owners. In the Chesapeake region the ratio of indentured servants was above 40 percent. (Hawke, 120) SInce, more tobacco was cultivated the need for labor was high compared to the New England. The tobacco farming made Chesapeake different than the New England.
This meant the Chesapeake Bay colonies could not grow cash crops. Instead, they would have family farms where they would only grow food for themselves. Their religion also helped shape the colony. The Pilgrims had left England because they believed the Anglican Church was corrupted, and it contained too many Roman Catholic beliefs. The Pilgrims were also religiously intolerant of other religions, and believed that theirs were the correct religion.
The Chesapeake and New England colonies developed differently because of their motivation, preparation, and demographics. One of the biggest differences between these two regions is the motivation to establish their colonies. New England was north of the Chesapeake region, and included Massachusetts Bay Colony, Plymouth, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. The New Englanders were Puritans, who sought religious freedom where they would be free to practice as they wished. They wanted to be “that city upon a hill”(Doc A).
In this document, Higginson calls out merchants who are only looking for money. He insists the Puritans' religion was more important than all other things. Unlike the merchants, who were willing to cheat people so they could get more money, Puritans worked hard to please God. The Puritans influenced economic development in New England by instigating a "Yankee
The colonists developed the stable government structure about “local affairs and landowners, legislature, marriage arrangements, and council and assembly members” (Gillon, pg.52). Moreover, the population in this region increased rapidly because there were more immigrants, and those who were Catholic and Protestant. Even though the Southern Colonies seemed to be another successful region, colonists needed to depended mainly on African labors, who were brought into the regions and caused another religion—African American or Anglican. These Africans were hard workers, and they were limit their abilities and were defined as human properties. “Africans were described as slaves and their offspring were declared to be slaves too” (Gillon, pg.
Economically, the Chesapeake was primarily based on agriculture, large plantations, very little industry. Fertile land, fertile agriculture they planted staple crops including tobacco, rice, and indigo. The main social aspect that differed was education. In the Chesapeake education was not emphasized as kids worked at wide spread plantation. Due to the rural environment schools and churches were more difficult to come.
Both the Chesapeake colonies and the New England colonies were vital to Britain’s atlantic trade. They both had large populations and booming economies. However, they both eventually established their own cultures that were different from each other. The colonies’ differing beliefs, environments, and labor lead to the contrasting cultures. The New England Colonies were a Puritanical society, who preached against excess.
Indians were governed by a Sachem “who upheld the law, negotiated treaties, controlled foreign contacts, collected tribute, declares war, provided for widows and orphans and collected farmlands which had cause disputes.” (Mann 29) Roger Williams states that the Indian political system was “very exact and punctual”. However, in England they had bigger populated areas which used more resources and constantly had changing agriculture in which “political tensions were constant”. (Mann 30) The archeologist Peter Thomas stated that the politics of New England were “an ever-changing collage of personalities, alliances, plots, raids and encounters” which lead their government into more turmoil than the Indians. (Mann