Eisenhower ordered the 101st Airborne Division to protect the nine students because Orval Eugene Faubus, Governor of Arkansas, was against African American kids attending an all white school. Yet, the brave nine African American students faced racial barriers to become the first black students to attend an all white school. A few years before the Little Rock Nine crisis, schools were desegregated. The Brown v. Board Education case took on several other cases in South Carolina, Delaware, Kansas, and Virginia. The case was clearly described how an African American is unable to enter a segregated school because of their race.
Envision living in a society where innocent people are murdered simply because of a difference in their skin color. Throughout much of America’s history, many African-American’s living in southern United States faced such threats to their lives. However, it was not the actions of the individual that served to endanger the lives of African-Americans in the south but rather the actions of a group of people with similar ideas. The Ku Klux Klan group was the most infamous of all groups. The Ku Klux Klan, also abbreviated as the “KKK”, was contributed to a long lasting racism of Blacks in America that even continues on till this day.
Board of Education case, came another pivotal moment for minority rights. On December 1st, 1955 the renowned Rosa Parks forever changed history as she was arrested in Montgomery, Alabama, as a result of not sitting in the back of the bus where African Americans were assigned. She became a prominent civil rights activist, and boycotted the Montgomery bus department for more than a year following her arrest. Among those who joined her was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
She was a girl that walked a mile to school every day even thought there was Sumner elementary (white school) nearest to her home like seven blocks away but it was only for white students. Linda 's father, Oliver Brown, tried to enroll her in the white elementary school, but the principal of the school refused because his child is black (Watts and Roberson, Pg. 218). Brown decided to take the problem to the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People willing to help the Brown family and filed their case happened in February 28, 1951.
An in an interracial couple, Mildred Jeter a 17-year-old, was black and Richard Loving a 23-year-old, was white. After they got married in Washington D.C and returned in 1958, they were charged and jailed for their actions. The judge told them that they would be sent to prison for one year or they could leave the state for 25 years in exile. Later on, they got arrested for traveling together in Virginia, they were referred to the American Civil Liberties Union. The court ruling disapproved with states banning interracial marriage because it was unconstitutional.
In 1955, Rosa Parks nonviolently protested by refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger and was then arrested, this then led to bus boycotts to try to end segregation in buses. Interestingly enough, segregated buses were a violation of the 14th amendment. Another event that led up to the Civil Rights Act was the Little Rock school desegregation in 1957. A group of African-American students decided to integrate Central High School in Arkansas, they were faced with a white mob and the governor did not agree with these actions. The students still found a way in but left shortly after.
Harriet Tubman was a woman who had escaped slavery and would help hundreds of enslaved Africans run away. She had escaped in 1849, and would become one of the most famous and celebrated people from the Underground Railroad. She had came back 15 times and during this she had helped in the escaping of hundreds of fugitive slaves. Fredrick Douglass was an enslaved African American who escaped slavery and became a leader of the abolition movement. Douglass wrote two novels which would become bestsellers and this would really help in the abolition movement.
Dana goes back in time during the slave days where racism was very common, and this piece of evidence shows how rude people of color were treated. Butler draws on that experience to convey the universal theme that racism happened frequently in the past, but it’s still occurring today. Through this novel, Butler speaks to the reader with the message that racism is something that continues, and will keep on continuing for a long time. The words“ job and white” show a negative connotation, and implies that people of color did not have very pleasant lives before. Dana experienced time traveling to the past, which lead to an external conflict of dealing with racism and slavery.
Throughout African American history , the police force has been accountable for numerous detrimental deaths in the African American community due to racial discrimination. In 1960s, African American protesters were targeted by the police force because of the their desire to be be deemed as equal. Likewise, in today’s society African Americans are still experiencing active racial discrimination and injustices from the police force. African Americans have expressed their level of frustration with the inhumane actions of the police force. Police brutality of African American protesters has been rebirthed into 21st century by ongoing racial injustices through Henry Louis Gates Jr. and victims of the detrimental equality marches , evidence is presented.
Many people were tired of this wrong doing that African Americans were experiencing during that time. Emmett Till is not the only young man that was killed for speaking to a white person. In a since this was the final straw that African Americans had. Many African Americans were tired of being scared or looked down upon by many people who did not know anything about them. All over the world from Chicago all the way to Alabama, many African Americans started putting their foot down and they started standing up and demanding their freedom.
Throughout the United States history, African Americans have suffered through a great deal of discrimination, hate crimes, police brutality, Jim Crow laws, poverty, hate groups and much more. Through it all the African American community have fought back peacefully with the help of some courageous leaders. All of the fighting led to the signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Although this act has made it illegal for any discrimination against race, religion, sex, and national origin, the African American community still suffers from discrimination. Many have stated that America have reached total equality for all race.
Since the beginning of time, African-Americans have been seen as inferior, incapable, and inhumane. After the Civil Rights Movement, the issue of racism was broadcasted internationally, and people globally saw how African-Americans were treated due to the color of their skin. Once the movement was over; African-Americans would have another issue to tackle; societal advancement. History books suggest that racism was finally over after the Civil Rights Movement, but racial bias is still embedded in white society. Racism may not be as harsh, or publically displayed, but African-Americans are not advancing at the same rates as whites.
A historic case in the U.S. supreme court was called the Brown vs. the Board of Education. Getting a good education is essential and we can see diverse population of students from different nationality in the classroom. However, this wasn’t always the case in the United States. Up until 1954, classrooms were very different than they are today—not allowing African American students to attend schools with white students. This was allowed because of the previous court case of 1896 of Plessy vs. Ferguson.