The Thirty Years War brought all major powers into Europe, including Austria and Spain. By this time in the war, armies are ravaging throughout the Holy Roman Empire. The war continues in 1618 in Bohemia, over the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II attempting to close churches. Cardinal Richelieu decided to help the Protestants, even though he was a Catholic. In 148, the Peace of Westphalia ends all religious wars in Europe and the princes of the Holy Roman Empire gain more freedom and can now choose between three religions.
Martin Luther was the catalyst of the Protestant Reformation and an extremely influential figure who completely altered religious and social ideals in Europe. Luther, a monk, was originally set out to be a lawyer, but, when frightened during a thunderstorm, he vowed to become a friar. He quickly became ordained, and then moved on to get a doctorate of theology, an achievement that he was immensely proud of. However, Luther became uncertain about monastic life. He was apprehensive about his duties, and saw himself as incapable of meeting God’s demands.
Similar to Emilie Durkheim and Maurice Halbwachs, Harvey was interested in the tensions of the French society following the humiliating defeat of the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871). Throughout Harvey’s research, the author was interested not only in the political ramifications, but also looking at class conflict over the Basilica. Specifically, the division between the Communards (socialist radicals) located heavily in the Paris working class and the conservative royalist faction, the Cult of the Sacred Heart. The Cult of the Sacred Heart was a sect within the Catholic church advocating for repentance to Christ and mysticism (Harvey 1979, 364). Moreover, the Cult of the Sacred Heart was closely connected to the nobility of the Ancien Regime.
During the early 700’s, Charles Martel took over in Latin Christendom, his Frankish kingdom of Christians. Martel’s kingdom was under threat of a rapidly spreading religion, Islam. This led to many battles between Christians and Muslims, but the most significant one was the Battle of Tours, 723 AD. Martel lead his army against the Muslims to attempt to stop them from progressing further into Europe, and he does. Without Christianity, this event would have never happened.
When the Protestant Reformation occurred, it had a large effect on western civilization. The Protestant Reformation was the 16th century when Martin Luther wanted to increase life and develop the right way within the churches. The Protestant Reformation changed life for people for Europe by the changes with religion, gender, and class. In Europe, there was a lot of religions fighting for the chances of succeeding and having all the power. In most cases, the Catholic Church was indeed incharge.
The Age of Enlightenment was a period of time when a movement of intellectuals strove to create tolerance of religion, separation of state and church, as well as removing complete power of the monarch. The Glorious Revolution of 1688, followed many Enlightenment principles. The cause of this revolution was the people’s displeasure with the Catholic king, James II, in hopes of turning the country to Protestantism, William of Orange, the king of Holland, and his wife Mary II, James oldest child. This quick and almost bloodless revolution put William of Orange of the English throne, gaining Protestants religious freedom, but suppressed the freedoms of Catholics. Although the Glorious Revolution was fueled in part by religious intolerance, ultimately the Glorious Revolution was a direct outcome of the Age of Enlightenment.
Karel is like Maximilian's successor became German King, the Spanish king, the ruler of 17 Dutch provinces and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. A prudent ruler, educated in tolerance in Delft in the Netherlands, he is nurturing an idea of a united Catholic Europe, solid in defense against the Turks. Its main rival was the French king Francis I, which is precisely engaged in contacts with the Turks. Karlovo greatest burden that has prevented further homogenization of the Holy Roman Empire, it was the schism and intolerance in the Christian church; a large part of the North and the German nobility was defined by Protestantism and thus also towards a single European country. In the years 1522-23 is also Karel V. Austrian hereditary lands allocated brother Ferdinand. Since then, the Habsburg dynasty divided into two branches: the Spanish-Dutch and Austrian-German.
Henry’s decision to split from the Catholic church was a very significant part of ancient history. Henry’s motivation to split from the church was not only about him wanting a divorce but Henry saw it as a political advantage as many people thought the Catholic church were abusing the power they had. In 1532 Henry declared Thomas Cranmer as the archbishop of Canterbury and in 1534 Cranmer supported the act of supremacy which led to the eventual split of the two religions later on. After 16 years of helping Henry, Thomas Wolsey was accused of treason and was taken into custody and died. Henry’s actions made had very big impacts on society because standing up and going against a Pope who was very high in power and a big
Relationships between Christianity, Islam, and Judaism were worsened, and the Pope lost a great deal of his power during the Crusades. European politics were shifted dramatically from feudalism to large towns and cities with bustling trade. Monarchs ruled the beginnings of modern European countries. People learned about other cultures and expanded their views of the world because of the effects of the Crusades. A large amount of crucial progress was made in medieval Europe as a result of the Crusades, and the battles fought over Jerusalem created ripples that still show in European countries to this
Emperor Frederick 1st (Barbarossa), was elected to the position of King of Germany at a time when the Kingdom was on the verge of Civil War over rightful inheritence, and the power of the Monarchy had been reduced to little more than that of a Duke or a Count; only holding power over the greaty deminished Crownlands. During his rule, he faced the monumental task of restoring the German Empire to its former glory and restablishing the power and authority of the Crown once again. Bararossa would come into conflict over his measures and would face several problems during his attempts to unite the Kingdoms of Germany and Italy and create for himself what would become known as the Holy Roman Empire. In his attempts to rule over the two great kingdoms, we can see how he needed to use different measures with each to ensure the cooperation of the governments and the peace of the Empire.
Philip II had been contemplating an invasion on England, however, due to Spain’s financial situation, the ability of taking on such an operation made the King reluctant. After the execution of the Roman Catholic, Mary Queen of Scots, he wanted to seek revenge. Being married to Mary Tudor and equally like her wishing to see England return to Roman Catholicism, Philip was determined, as well as being backed by a country which was known as the strongest Catholic nation in Europe. Many factors influenced his decision; however, in 1585 Elizabeth contributed to his decision to attack. This was through Elizabeth helping the Protestants in the Netherlands when they revolted against their Spanish overlords led by the Duke of Parma.
Part 2: 1648-1815 27. Dynastic and state interests, along with Europe’s expanding colonial empires, influenced the diplomacy of European states and frequently led to war. As a result of the Holy Roman Empire’s limitation of sovereignty in the Peace of Westphalia, Prussia rose to power and the Habsburgs, centered in Austria, shifted their empire eastward. After the Austrian defeat of the Turks in 1683 at the Battle of Vienna, the Ottomans ceased their westward expansion. Louis XIV’s nearly continuous wars, pursuing both dynastic and state interests, provoked a coalition of European powers opposing him.
Ever since the Protestant Reformation started in sixteenth century Germany, Europe was arguably no longer the same. The revival of Biblical theology had led to Western Christendom splitting into various denominations of the Christian faith, with Protestant sects and other Orthodox Churches. Despite the Church of Rome still holding remarkable power and influence through its Papal States and the Holy Roman Empire, the Pope could no longer be considered as the sole religious authority in Europe. Contrary to popular opinion, this revolution cannot be solely credited to Martin Luther and his theological writings, but rather to a chain of events that had, was and will happen during the century. The transformations in Europe instead was key to the
The reformation is often viewed as a religious movement, yet it also affected the political and social aspects of Europe as well. Martin Luther, a German friar helped lead the reformation attacking the Catholic Church. As stated in Document 1, Luther attacks the lords, princes, blind bishops, priests,