For a multitude of years, African Americans were considered purchasable property, not people. When the United States ratified the Constitution and they had established their government, slavery had not been abolished. It was not until the period after The Civil War that the United States government passed the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments and African Americans had gained their long-awaited freedom and civil rights. These Reconstruction Amendments gave African Americans the right to live the American Dream. The Reconstruction Amendments helped African Americans build an American Dream by promoting their general welfare, giving them liberty, and assuring justice for all people of color.
Particularly in the South, they continued to seek opportunities to legal slavery. As a result, Southerners pass a state law, Black Codes, during reconstruction. This law restricted the civil rights and public activities of legally freed African Americans. Owning weapons, freedom of movement, and land ownerships were against Black Codes. Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896), the court case that upheld authority of the state law claiming, “separate-but-equal facilities for whites and blacks” , led up to another significant factor, segregation, which arose to be controversy in mid-1900s.
As well as that, the Emancipation Proclamation, declared on January 1st 1863, provided that all slaves “shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free” (Lincoln). Although the proclamation was declared unconstitutional later on, it was a huge turning point for African Americans because it provided them with hope, was a backbone for the abolishment of slavery, and was a catalyst for
Question #1 The Conservatives plan was to see changes made after the war. They wanted the South to abolish slavery, along with Lincoln 's proposition to give amnesty to all whites in the South that would agree with the terms. The African Americans were also given an opportunity to succeed via the suffrage, if they were educated, owned property or served in the Union Army. The Conservatives were taking this transition period to make things right for the African Americans.
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision formally introduced “Jim Crow” laws to the nation. The U.S. Supreme Court ultimately maintained that, “as long as equal facilities were provided to citizens, classification of individuals by race was neither a violation of the 14th Amendment’s equal protection clause nor inhibitory of the Black community’s advancement” (Guthrie, 2004, p 7-8). For the era, which followed the Supreme Court ruling, African Americans struggled for an equal life in society and tried to gain rights. With the creation of the NAACP in 1909 it “became instrumental in advocating the rights of its minority constituency…”
People always want to demand their essential rights from government’s restriction by passing new laws. There was a period when people demanded their rights in the 1900s. Within the United States, most African Americans’ rights were denied by state governments. Hence, in the 1960s, they took a stand on requiring their rights through the Civil Rights movement around the country. During this movement, the Voting Rights Act was significant and for the reason is that this act gave African Americans a chance to participate in US politics by their votes.
On the other hand, White Australian are considered as White even though he/ she has Aboriginal ancestry because Aboriginal people are source of free land and White population want to occupy the land successfully. In conclusion, these three arguments have shown that race is socially constructed and not based solely on biologically
Since many colored people migrated to America after World War One the increase in numbers helped The National Association for Colored People grow. The NAACP was a group of sixty white and black people, including W.E.B. Du Bois, Ida Bell Wells-Barnett, Mary White Ovington, and others focused on racial equality. They wanted to make everyone be able to have the rights for the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendment. The 13th amendment promised no more slavery, The 14th amendment promised equal protection, the 15th amendment promised universal adult male suffrage.
This was significant because Douglass was an important figure of human rights and fought hard to gain black suffrage. July 30, 1866 - Ku Klux Klan The Ku Klux Klan was established in Tennessee to intimidate African Americans. Another goal was to restore white rule. April 9, 1866- Congress pass the Civil Rights Act
Wells was an African American who saw hope in the African American life to change since she saw it with her parents being former slaves and achieved higher things. That perspective changed when she saw the rights of African Americans being taken away from white Americans. Wells’s goals were to let the world know the horrible things that happened in the South to African Americans. In Memphis, she was editor for the Free Speech and Headlight there she” editorials under the pseudonym "Iola," she condemned violence against blacks, disfranchisement, poor schools, and the failure of black people to fight for their rights.” (PBS)
Booker T Washington writes the book “Up From Slavery”; in this book, he writes about being born a slave and growing up battling to get his education after the Civil War. He talks about the battle and speeches he had given to try to express the necessity of the Negros to be equal. “I tried to emphasize the fact that while the Negro should not be deprived by unfair means of the franchise…and that no race without these elements could permanently succeed.” (Washington 208). Washington is saying that many Negros were denied rights due to their color, and in fact, he felt that the Congress should help out.
The Civil War was a conflict between the Union and Confederacy over the abolition of slavery. There were many individuals white and black that had a major impact on the victory of the Union Army. Both whites and African Americans fought bravely and valiantly, but for African Americans the Civil War meant so much more to them than it ever could for the whites. The Civil War meant freedom, it meant that African Americans could live their life according to themself, instead of according to their masters. It meant that it brought African Americans one step closer to being equal to whites in the society’s eyes.
Post Civil War, African Americans started to gain rights to gain rights, and soon gain rights equal to whites. While there were some people/things standing in their way (KKK, Black Codes), in the end they got what they needed; Equality. Many acts and laws were passed to aid the new rights now held by African Americans, as well as the numerous people willing to help. New Amendments were added to give African Americans rights after the war, all giving them some equal rights to whites. The first of the three added was the Thirteenth Amendment, it gave African Americans freedom from slave owners, and stated that no one could be kept as a slave in the U.S..
Voting is such a huge thing because you want to be able to have a say in who you think should run things based on if they win or not. Especially if that person has the power to change what happens around you. The U.S. Government claimed they listen to what many African Americans and minorities had to say about what was happening in America because it was pretty clear that America had a problem. A guy named Robert Williams mentions in his 1965 speech by calling America “Racist America”. He states that so many African American are terrorized, murdered, maimed, bombed, lynched, raped, starved, sterilized by the states and imprisoned.
Until there are enough black citizens that are powerful enough to change the way society and government works, blacks citizens