Capital market is the market for long term loans and equity capital. The stock market plays a vital role in economic development of a nation, since it acts as mediator between borrowers and lenders. A well-function stock market will contribute to development of an economy through two important channels such as boosting saving and allowing for more efficient allocation of resources Baskin, J. (1989). Stock market is an important part of the economy of a country.
In light of this when profits are maximised the firm make decisions to access shareholders wealth through the means of equity. For instance such examples of equity are: ordinary share, preference shares, hybrids and bonds. In addition, Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and Dividend Growth Model (DGM) is used to calculate measures of equity for the organisation. Inasmuch with cost of equity are investments can be obtained to generate cash causing the firm to be affluent and profitable through investment appraisal decision such as net present value, average rate of return, internal rate of return and payback period. The money retrieved at the end of the investments will be utilised in the form of
Corporate Finance is a department dealing with various aspects of finance with the goal of maximizing the value of corporation while reducing the chances of risks. Companies do business and make money. Some companies make a lot of money and of course require someone to manage that money. Otherwise survival of company is not possible. That is the time when corporate finance comes into action.
Relational the record between financial reporting quality and investment efficiency has an impact between macroeconomic and corporate levels (given that investment is a major determinant of the return on capital obtained by investors). Our results by considering a comprehensive measure of investment elongate and generalize the results of before (and its sub-components), in order to financial reporting quality using multiple agents，and by specifically filing the relation between financial reporting quality and two origins of economic inefficiency, over-investment and under-investment. By the previous studies are difficult to find the relation between financial reporting quality and over-investment and
Investment advisors provide clients, which are the individual investors advice on financial matters including financial planning and selling securities and make recommendations on the on ways to best utilize their money. Investment advisors have a hard job because they have to research the market place and advise the clients on products and services that are available and make sure that they are aware of and understand those that best meet their needs and expectations, and at the end they secure a sale. They also have to take in to account the client’s financial resources
Accrual accounting and Cash flow accounting are critical factors which contribute to judgments and decision-makings that lead to a successful business. It is debatable whether accrual accounting is preferred to cash flow accounting, while there are some financial economists are in favor of using cash flow basic to report. This chapter will first give a foundation of accrual and cash flow accounting, then discuss the advantages as well as drawbacks of both methods and give the conclusion which type of accounting is suitable to record. Accrual accounting is an accounting that revenues are recognized when sales have been made and expenses are recorded when they are incurred, even the cash receipt from the revenue or the cash payment related to
It forms part of the capital structure of the Company. It affects the firm’s capital structure, Interest rates, risks and the market’s overall attitude towards risk. The capital structure are sources of financing for business projects which can either be in form of debt or equity. Most small companies will opt for short term debt as opposed to large companies which might opt for securities such as bonds to raise the initial capital. Debt is always preferred to equity because of tax shield benefit of debt among other benefits.
Thus, in setting accounting principles, the FASB appears to be emphasizing the valuation role of accounting information over other uses. The use of accounting information in valuation generates capital market incentives to manage earnings. Managers may manipulate earnings to improve market participants’ perception of the ﬁrm’s risk and performance. For example, extant research indicates that investors use benchmarks such as previous year earnings or analysts’ forecasts in evaluating performance, thus motivating ﬁrm’s to overstate earnings to meet or beat these targets (e.g., Burgstahler and Dichev, 1997). Anecdotal and empirical evidence suggests that investors prefer smooth earnings and persistent patterns of increasing earnings over volatile ones (e.g., Dechow and Dichev, 2002; Tucker and Zarowin, 2006).
Do not simply look at the expected yield, but also consider the concentration, quality and lease length of the underlying properties. Some of the risks associated with investing in REITs include: Market Risk: REITs are traded on the stock exchange and the prices are subject to demand and supply conditions, just like other stocks. Investors could receive less than the original investment amount when they sell their units in a REIT. The prices generally reflect investors’ confidence in the economy, the property market and its returns, the REIT management, interest rates, and many other factors. Like other stocks, investors must be able to tolerate such price movements.