Language acquirers are not usually conscious of the fact that they are acquiring language, but the aye only aware of the fact that they are using the language for communication. The stages of language acquisition is approached by two stages language acquisition that ; first language acquisition ( native language development ) and second language acquisition. 1. Stages of First Language Acquisition Babling Stage In this stage, we make speech sounds in and out of mother (native) language, moreover we also able to discriminate speech sound. - 0 – 2 months, baby accomplish crying, in this stage baby will cry to express hunger and discomfort.
First language acquisition consist of children learning how to properly develop their oral skills to communicate in their native language. From birth, the child begins to acquire language by hearing adults speaking, although the child cannot fully understand the language, subconsciously the child is acquiring the language. As a child gets older they began to become knowledgeable of the grammatical rules in writing and begin to expand their vocabulary. Second language acquisition consist of child learning another language beside their native language. In some occasions a child is exposed to two languages simultaneously, causing the child to combine some aspects of the language.
Compare to the time it takes in adults’ language learning, it is widely believed that children acquire their first language at a much higher speed. There have been a lot of researches concerning this topic. For example, White (2003) discussed about the theoretical problem of first language acquisition from the perspective of universal grammar; Krashen (1982) has proposed five hypothesis concerning principles and practices on the topic of second language acquisition. In order to analyze this topic, it is appropriate to start with children’s first language acquisition. By the comparison and analysis first language acquisition process, we may discover the features of language acquisition as well as the factors that affect the process.
Some have argued that language acquisition device. Some have argued that language acquisition device provides children with a knowledge of linguistic universals, such as the existence of word order and word classes; others, that it provides only general procedures for discovering how language is to be learned. But all of its supporters are agreed that some such notion is needed in order to explain the remarkable speed with which children learn to speak, and the considerable similarity in the way grammatical patterns are acquired across different children and languages. Adult speech, it is felt, cannot of itself provide a means of enabling children to work out the regularities of language for themselves, because it is too complex and disorganized. However, it has proved difficult to formulate the detailed properties oflanguage acquisition device in an uncontroversial manner, in the light of the changes in generative linguistic theory that have taken place in recent years; and meanwhile, alternative accounts of the acquisition process have
One of the learning outcomes are it helps children to enhance their understanding of the ways their own language (s) works and help them to develop the strategies for learning new languages. Besides, by using Language Awareness Approach, children can explore new languages and discuss similarities and differences among the languages. Last but not least, children get to discover the relationship between language and identity through Language Awareness Approach. The activities that I planned for the children will strike a balance between teacher-directed and child-centred because language learning is about both explicit and implicit knowledge. One of the activities is use alphabet crafts of English uppercase letters to teach the Mandarin names for some animals.
In a bilingual maintenance program, students continue to use their primary language while “the emphasis on English …increases in each subsequent grade” (Kauchak & Eggen, 2017, p. 85). Another program is known as immersion, which consists of only using English in the classroom. Immersion is a program that requires students to pick up on English by eliminating their primary language. Transition programs allow for students to use their primary language “until students acquire sufficient English to succeed in English-only classrooms” (Kauchak & Eggen, 2017, p. 85). Lastly, English as a second language programs require English-only instruction while instruction is adapted into classroom content.
This is feasible by attending schools in the target country, watching television, listening to radio and reading newspapers in second language. By being actively involved in the learning atmosphere, the learner is always in touch with the target language through normal daily chores. It is extremely vital in second language acquisition to look at the learning environment and investigate if the age factor has any relevant effect. Five phases of Second Language Acquisition are as follows: It is generally believed that the process of second language acquisition takes place in various stages. In order to examine SLA, looking at the five stages of second language acquisition seems inevitable.
Learning vocabulary through extensive reading also expands students’ fluency. Students look at group of vocabularies rather than each individual vocabulary while reading. Hulstijn and Laufer (2001) emphasized that the vocabularies that students meet in incidental vocabulary acquisition will be remembered in the long term memory and could be applied more confidently in various settings. In contrast, Ahmad (2012)
Any language acquisition is based on how much we listen and read in that given language. Like we acquire our mother tongue through listening and speaking, initially imitating sounds moving on to words and sentences as infants. Reading and writing comes later when we attend school. But second language or foreign language acquisition always begins after a learner goes to school and starts with reading and writing; listening and speaking always take a back seat or rather not present at all. This situation is rather predominant in Arab countries since English is not used anywhere in their day to day affairs.
Justifying academic and personal interest of the topic Vocabulary is an important component of the communicative skills in a new language. The linguistic David Wilkins ( ) summed up the importance of vocabulary learning as follows: “Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.” Most learners acknowledge the importance of vocabulary acquisition. They understand the need of useful vocabulary to express themselves. Nevertheless students show little interest in learning vocabulary. Hence there is the need to create a learning environment leading to actively engage students and keep them motivated.