How Does Culture Influence Knowledge Management

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2.6.2.4 Influence of culture on KM
Many knowledge scholars and practitioners (Chase (1997); Bixler (2005); David Skyrme Associates (2003) and Svensson (2005)) acknowledge that organizational culture greatly influences knowledge management. Chase (1997) stated that a successfully implemented knowledge management system is mainly linked with soft issues such as organizational culture. Bixler (2005) mentions that developing a knowledge sharing culture is a requirement for building up a knowledge management system. Davenport et al. (1998) in their study of 31 projects concluded that culture was a key factor for success. David Skyrme Associates (2003) lists knowledge creating and sharing culture on its list of most critical knowledge management
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In a study of six big American technology companies Akhavan et al. (2006) found that all the companies researched on regarded organizational culture as a critical success factor in knowledge management. This shows the importance of an enabling organisational culture to make KM a success. This is consistent with Nahapiet and Ghoshal; (1998) who state that in translation of individual learning into organisational capability in a knowledge sharing culture is key. In order to create a knowledge creating and sharing environment, individuals within the organisation need to be willing to share and integrate their knowledge. This shows an agreement in literature that in studying knowledge management that the organizational cannot be ignored in studying knowledge management since it is not an assumed variable.Zalami (2005) states that culture can facilitate or inhibit institutional transformation depending on whether or not the existing culture is aligned…show more content…
It is associated with innovative leaders with vision who focus on the external environment (Denison and Spreitzer ; 1991).

2.6.2.6.3 Human Relations Model
The human relations model involves flexibility /internal focus in which training and the broader development of human resources is utilised to achieve cohesion and employee morale. It is associated with trust and teamwork. Managers in companies of this type seek to encourage and mentor employees (Bradley and Parker 2001).

2.6.2.6.4 Rational Goal Model
The rational goal model involves control/external focus in which planning and goal setting are utilised to achieve efficiency and productivity. Results based management is the emphasis. Companies of this type are production oriented and mangers organize employees in the pursuit of assigned goals and objectives and rewards are linked to outcomes (Bradley and Parker; 2001).

2.6.2.6.5 Implications of the Competing Value
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