There is a large number of exciting cultures around the world, and ability to speak several foreign languages increases the chances to be involved in culture. While learning a new language, it is also important to pay attention to cultural aspect of people who speak it. Language is used for communication, and communication is inseparable from culture due to the need of encoding messages, the meanings of messages, and conditions under which messages are delivered need to be interpreted by communicators according to cultural belonging of people with whom they speak (Samovar, Porter & Jain, 1981). An essential task for language learners is to understand the perspective of people who speak this language. In order to avoid intercultural misunderstandings, people should know what phrases would be appropriate in definite circumstances and should not be said.
Learning a second language will theoretically require the learner to adapt his/her values and behavior (Jund, 2010). This implies that there is a strong connection between the language and culture and that it is represented in the culture of the speakers. It incorporates aspects such as beliefs, values and needs. The sociolinguistic aspect of communication refers to the attributes of speech, which rely on social, pragmatic, and cultural elements (Cakir, 2006, p.158). This is noteworthy, as language and interaction might depend on the social status of the speaker or hearer, and on social factors.
The learners need to be aware, for example, of the culturally appropriate ways to address people, express gratitude, make requests, and agree or disagree with someone. They should know that behavior and intonation patterns that are appropriate in their own speech community may be perceived differently by members of the target language. In addition, culture in language learning is more defined as understanding the meaning pragmatically associated with the cultural context of the language being studied. In this case, Byram and Grundy (2002) argued that culture in language teaching and learning is usually defined pragmatically as a/the culture associated with a language being learnt. On the other hand, Kramsch (1993) pointed out that a foreign culture and one's own culture should be placed together in order for learners to understand a foreign culture.
The most effective methods of learning a foreign language Languages may be defined as one of the most relevant ways of communication for many communities or countries. Every territory is represented by its own dialect, culture, religion or history. All these societies could not have the capability to understand each other for centuries because of the cultural and linguistic differences. These days, many young persons can achieve a new perspective about the world by studying a large number of languages, but is very important to know which method to apply for a good result. Some researchers may present studying a foreign language as learning to playing a new complex game.
The role of culture in teaching foreign language Different points of view, culture has taken an important place in foreign language teaching and learning studies. It has been widely recognized that culture and language is used as a main medium through which culture is expressed. However, “pure information” is useful but does not necessarily lead learners’ insight; whereas the development of people’s cultural awareness leads them to more critical thinking. Most frequently confronted that students to a great extend know the rules of language, but are not always able to use the language adequately as it requires since they are not knowledgeable enough about the target culture. Bearing all this in mind, the aim of this article has been to provide necessary information for the foreign language teachers and learners so that they can establish a good connection with the target language and its culture.
The aim of foreign language learning is to gain the expertise required to converse with the target language’s population. There is a scarcity of literature about the perception of members of a culture of others as well as themselves (Hall &Ramírez, 1993). Language learning through content is not a new idea. What is new is the idea that the content of the language classroom be structured by intercultural interaction. If we recognise that such learning is indeed invaluable to the language learner, then a focus on the development of intercultural communication in foreign language learning is worth of serious attention (Hall & Ramírez,
Differences between children and adults foreign language learning Foreign language acquisition is a subject of general development trends. Learning a foreign language affects not only the expansion of the education, but also the perception of the world. In the framework of modern society the purpose of foreign language teaching is to cultivate personal qualities of a person, increasing his chances to integrate more easily the professional world. A foreign language appears, in fact, as an instrument of intercultural and international communication, but can also be the natural way to communicate in bilingual families. Learning a foreign language is a complex process, the success of which depends on the right choice of educational method.
In many cases, people's ability to learn another language enhances the native language. General vocabulary also helps people learn the meaning of new words. Children who have studied a foreign language, cultural pluralism towards other cultures and foster a sense of openness and appreciation. Being able to travel freely in other countries, foreign language literature, film and music with their original shape and see the world the opportunity to gain understanding of cultural differences. Ability to develop self-expression.
Because of individual differences, learning a foreign language can be difficult. Educational psychology has for decades recognized, emphasized, and investigated the concept of individual learner differences; "it is undoubtedly true that learners bring many individual characteristics to the learning process which will affect both the way in which they learn and the outcomes of that process" (Williams & Burden, 1997, p. 88). Moreover; instructors and expertise believed that some individuals learn a foreign language easily and some with more difficulty. Teachers and parents always have been concerned about student’s success in English learning as a foreign language and social adaptation both in and out of the
2. Review of the related literature 2.1 Introduction In this chapter, the researcher will review some concepts, definitions and studies related to culture, language, Cultural influence on speaking and Teaching culture in EFL classroom. 2.2 Culture Among many other researchers, Hymes (1996) stresses that the learning of culture needs to be a basic part of language learning and education because culture critically effects on the values of the community, everyday interaction, the norms of speaking and acts, and the socio-cultural expectations of an individual's roles. He further notes that those who do not follow the norms of usefulness accepted in a community are often placed in a position that excites social differences and bias. Although