Furthermore managerial staff have reached a certain level in their career and will therefore be motivated by different factors as compared to factors that affect motivation of operational level staff. The author has included results of a study conducted by Centres and Bugental (2007). This study concluded that employees at higher occupational level valued motivators or intrinsic job factors and whereas employees at a lower occupational level valued hygiene factors or extrinsic job factors. The sample used in this research is inadequate to reach the conclusion mentioned by the author 'The researcher
The results of the second sample were identical with the results of the first sample, except in the case of self-rated and manager-rated personal initiative, in which case the correlation was only moderate. Gary Jon Springer (2010) tried to ascertain the effects of job motivation and job satisfaction on job performance through seventy randomly selected bank employees. Collected data was analysed, applying both Pearson Correlation and multiple regression techniques. Hersey & Blanchard (1969) ranked the following factors as top motivating factors: (1) full appreciation of work done, (2) feeling of being (3) sympathetic help with personal problems, (4) job security (5) Good wages/salaries as the five top motivational factors out of ten factors. Carolyn Wiley (1997) in his research says that the priorities of what motivates the employees over the years has been changing.
Maslow’shierarchy of needs also influenced Herzberg’s Motivational Hygiene Theory that stressed on the different needs of the individual. Herzberg concluded that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction were the products of two separate factors: motivating factors and hygiene factors. Hygiene factors surround the doing of the job. They include supervision, interpersonal relations, physical working conditions, salary, company policy and administration, benefits, and job security and should be properly managed. Motivation factors lead to positive job attitudes because they satisfy the need for self-actualization.
The assessment of employee’s performance provides the supervisor an opportunity to convey that the organisation is interested in their performance and development. This recognition can have a positive motivational influence on the individual 's sense of worth, commitment and belonging. According to Herzberg’s two factor theory, there are satisfiers and dissatisfiers. The satisfiers also called as motivational factors are related to a job content. These factors are achievement, recognition, challenging work, advancement and growth in the job.
It motivates employees to take initiative in order to be credited for their success and outcomes. The need for power is what plays the predominant role in success (Miner 1992). This motivates people with a drive for leadership who like to take charge and enjoy competition as it is seen as the key to managerial success. Those with a high need for affiliation are motivated by harmonious relationships with their fellow workers and by acceptance. Usually these types of people work better in teams and with others as it satisfies their social needs.
CHAPER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.0 INTRODUCTION This chapter reviews the existing literature that is related this study it includes: job satisfaction, factors affecting job satisfaction, important Elements of job satisfaction, theoretical framework and conclusion. 2.1 job satisfaction Job satisfaction can be defined as that which gives employees the motivation continue with daily work or make him actually want to go to work or gives him urge to take up a new assignment or project. One of the factors that leads to job satisfaction is recognition and encouragement where an organization has a good evaluation system and the employee’s work recognized and then he is encouraged and motivated to continue contributing to the organization. According
The Effect of Motivation on Employees’ Performance Motivation is a key determinant of employees’ performance and a poorly motivated force will be costly in terms of excessive staff turnover, higher expenses, negative morale and increased use of managements time (Jobber, 1994). Tyilana (2005) suggests that three motivational factors such as achievement, recognition and work itself cause job satisfaction and employees’ performance. Employees want to earn reasonable salary and payment, and employees desire their workers to feel that is what they are getting. The previous researches, it is seen that factors that affect the employees of different organizations in a negative way are- insufficient wage and job security, limited training programs, lack of new opportunities etc. Moreover, with the pace of time several other factors have been revealed those are negatively affect employee motivation and performance.
3.1. Lead and motivate a team to achieve an agreed goal or objective According to Maslow’s motivation theory, employee satisfaction is very important the leadership and management style of the manager highly contributes to satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the employees. This influences the objectives of the organisation and its growth, therefore, they should ensure motivations among their employees and this will ensure productivity in the organisation. Internal motivation may include bonuses, promotions, and also incentives. Through leadership, a manager is able to establish a friendly work culture in the organisation.
The awards do not solely have to be perceived, but the employee has to attach to it a high value, that he really wishes to obtain them. Therefore the outcomes of his work will have more and more value if the rewards meet his own needs or desires of the moment. If the perceived value of the reward is not sufficient in the employee’s eyes, there will be no motivation. As much aspects that a manager must look at, but this part will be studied in the next sections. So, for the combination of these three notions, and to make the motivation process work, the three parameters must work together, because if at any time one of the factor is missing, the whole motivation will be missing à Motivation = V x I x
Whether employees are happy and pleasing their needs at work environment. Many measures claim that employee satisfaction is a factor in employee motivation and goal. 2.2.2 Decision-making It is important to bring employees on a board in the decision-making process, but create realistic expectations in the process. 2.2.3 Work Environment and Flexibility Employees doing the right job for their personality and skill set, and performing well at the job greatly increases employees motivation and satisfaction. A safe and non-threatening work habitat are necessary to maintain a high level of work motivation.