The electron has a half integer spin, which leads to intrinsic angular momentum, a feature that all fermions possess. Pauli’s Exclusion principle states that two electrons cannot occupy the same time. An electron behaves as both a wave and a particle, as it can be diffracted but it will also collide with other particles. This is a Quantum mechanics property called Wave Particle Duality. The spin is
The difference between unstable atoms and stable atoms is that unstable atoms have an excess of energy or mass or both. When the atoms have unstable nuclei, they are said to be radioactive. The atoms have to give off, or emit, the excess energy or mass in order to reach stability. These emissions are called radiation. The radiation has
It can be thought of as a measure of the difficulty of removing electrons or the strength of the electrons that is bounded. Consequently, the higher the ionization energy, the more difficult it is to remove an electron. Thus, ionization energy is considered as an indicator of an atom’s reactivity. This type of energy is usually expressed in kJ/mol. Similarly as the atomic radius, the ionization energy follows a trend on the periodic table of elements.
 In a typical halogen-bonded complex R–X…Y: • The interatomic distance between X and the appropriate nucleophilic atom of Y tends to be less than the sum of the van der Waals radii. • The length of the R–X covalent bond usually increases relative to the unbonded
The major error in the present measurement were statistical error; error in determining intrinsic and geometric efficiencies, Photo fraction, energy resolution of the detector, EB absorption in target compound, air, aluminum can etc,. And beta source strength. In determining these errors we have followed the methods adopted by Liden-Starfelt  and Shivaramu . Overall error estimated to be varies between 4% to 12% from low to high energy end of the spectrum. To determine the attenuation of EB in BaCl2, BaCO3, BaTiO3,
All the matter we see around us are composed of different types of atoms. Deep in the heart of each atom there is the nucleus, which is composed of yet smaller particles, protons and neutrons (nucleons). Their behavior is controlled by three fundamental forces of nature – the strong force, together with the weak and electromagnetic forces. These forces combine to generate highly complex nuclear structures that are challenging to study and understand. This complex structure and energy based force is responsible for the large scale energy emission.
Initially it was planned to be hundred megaton. The fact that the uranium fusion was altered to lead made it a purest energy . This was followed by further tests on both sides in US and the Soviet Union. The tests were resumed after discussions on stopping them. Sakharov was deeply disappointed by this and felt his responsibility for this
When an object is not dense, it will float which will make the atoms loose. Scientists are able to measure density by dividing the mass of an object and dividing the object by its volume. Overall, density is the amount of mass in a given space. Variables: Independent Variable: Different Amount Of Salt (Mass in Grams) Dependent Variable: Density of Salt Solutions (Layering of Solutions)
The second reason is that the nonmetals have smaller atomic sizes making it easy to attract electrons but difficult to pull them away. 12. A lot of energy is required to break a strong intermolecular bond. This is because atoms in certain compounds have very strong bonds that require energy to break. This explains why some compounds have higher boiling points than others.
More than 150,000 people died between the two blasts. The morality of the atomic bomb drops are often questioned. “Few doubt that the United States would have developed the weapon before the end of the war if it had not been for the persistence of…Leo Szilard… [and] Albert Einstein.” (178). One of the revelations made that lead to the construction of the atomic bomb happened at a traffic light. Szilard thought that it may be possible to split a nucleus with a neutron causing nuclear fission.
The waste contains poisonous elements such as plutonium. Low level waste is when the item used as fuel is contaminated or becomes radioactive. Also when material would be exposed to neutron radiation. High Level waste is the byproduct left inside the reactor after the nuclear reactions occur. This byproduct is more radioactive and takes longer to dispose of.
Polarity shared electrons get pull away difference in electrical charge at one end as opposed to the other end 2.3 The Ionic Bond 1. Ionic bonding when the electronegativity differences between 2 atoms were so extreme that the electrons were pulled off 1 atom only to latch on to the atom that was attracting them A: What is an Ion? 1. Ion is a changed atom or an atom with the number of electrons different from it number of protons 2. Ionic bonding is the chemical bonding in which 2 or more ions are linked by virtue of its opposite charge 3.