The Maillard Reaction is a chemical reaction between amino acids and a reducing sugar, usually requiring heat.5 According to the article “Pancakes, Served with a Side of Science” by Aatish Bhatia it stated “When you raise the heat on your pancake mix, the amino acids that make up the proteins begin to chemically bond with carbon and oxygen atoms from sugars.”6 This shows the process of Maillard reaction, and how the sugar and the protein from the egg in the pancake is an affection. Chemical reaction has indicators to determine its identity. The indicators are evolution of gas and absorption of heat. Change of color is also a part of it. According to the article “Why Does a Color Change Indicate a Chemical Change?” by Bill Robertson, it stated, “There are a number of indicators you can use to determine whether or not a chemical reaction has occurred.”3 This shows that chemical reaction can be identified by some specific indicators.
Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reaction, and they work best at their optimal conditions (optimum pH, temperature etc.) but when the environment is not close to the optimum conditions, the enzymes denature and do not function anymore1. An excellent example would of the effect of temperature on yeast fermentation would be that the bacterial cells if exposed to very high temperature (above the optimal) would no longer function since their enzymes are denatured. The yeast would produce the most Carbon dioxide in the optimal temperature (45 °C ±1/°C) and other temperatures below the optimal temperature would not produce sufficient Carbon dioxide and any temperature above will produce too much that it will lead to the sinking of the bread and death of yeast because its enzymes have been denatured, therefore the reaction will stop. The bread will certainly sink if is not exposed to the right temperature the yeast will not ferment
ABSTRACT To catalyze a reaction, an enzyme will grab on (bind) to one or more reactant molecules. In this experiment we examined how increasing the volume of the extract added to the reaction would affect the rate of the reaction. The enzyme used was horseradish peroxidase which helps catalyze hydrogen peroxide. Using different pH levels, the absorbance rate of the reaction was measured to see at which condition the enzyme worked best. The rates of absorption were calculated using a spectrophotometer in 20 second intervals up to 120 seconds.
Higher Concentration of Sucrose Lowers the Mass of a Potato Independent Variable: Concentration of Sucrose used Dependent Variable: Mass of each Potato after Experiment Constant: Size of Potato being used at room temperature Introduction We learned about hypertonic and hypotonic environments before this lab as well as what takes place during osmosis. Do potatoes loose or gain mass when soaked in specific solutions such as sugar or salts? Sugar is a large molecule and has low permeability. Potatoes are a starch which means it is composed of many polysaccharides, therefor has low permeability. Salts are also molecules with low permeability.
Catalase, or enzymes, drastically increases the rate of hydrogen peroxide decomposition. This lab shows how catalase added to hydrogen peroxide leads to the release of oxygen, if hydrogen peroxide was required to decompose naturally, life could not survive. The addition of catalase increases this decomposition rate allowing life to continue. For enzymes to operate they must be able to make contact with the substrate; the enzyme or substrate or both must
The Effect of Alkaseltzer Tablets on the Boiling Point of Water Zackary Zambrano Chemistry Honors Mrs.Gregor Period-3 10/5/16 Introduction Statement of Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to see whether or not alkaseltzer tablets have an effect on the boiling point of 100 mL of water. The control is just water, the variable groups are 100 mL of water with one tablet, and 100 mL of water with two tablets. “What exactly is boiling? The technical definition is what occurs when the vapor pressure of a liquid is greater than or equal to the atmospheric pressure.”(Lopez,k) Simply put water, boils when enough energy is released to cause bubbles and then turn to vapor. When water begins to boil, the water will continue to boil at
Temperatures that are too high denature the enzyme and halt the enzyme’s activity (2). Catalase denatures starts to denature at fifty five degrees Celsius (2). Reactions in the human body produce hydrogen peroxide as a product (1). Since hydrogen peroxide is poisonous to the human body, catalase catalyzes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen (2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2) (1). According to the collision theory, a reaction can only occur if particles collide with sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy and with correct geometrical orientation (3).
Therefore, all the particles in the colder cooking oil came closer to each other making the substance become very thick. This is what happened in the experiment, when the corn syrup was placed in the cold water bath, the particles were not getting any energy so they were not moving as fast as the hot corn syrup. The particles were not going in different directions, but coming closer together. Since, the particles for the hot cooking oil are moving quicker and further away from each other so the substance was thinner therefore, the flow rate increased and viscosity decreased. For the cold cooking oil, the flow rate decreased and the viscosity increased because the particles were moving slowly with no energy source and coming closer together making the substance become thicker.
Thereafter we see an exponential increase in the production of carbon dioxide. This means there is a great activity in the break-down of the two sugar substrates by yeast. The control of this experiment lacked sugar but had two times the yeast; the yeast alone produced carbon dioxide that occupied the 5 mm subtracted from the experiment. The minute amounts of carbon dioxide that are produced result from fermentation undergone by yeast cells using the sugars that are already in their system (Barnett and Lichtenthaler,
Which is why I believe I found that most of the points on my graph were spread over a wide range. Also, the experiment required more than one piece of potato and each potato might have had more water in it or less thus affecting the mass of potato. My partner and I also had used different potatoes one can deduce that these potatoes were of different qualities. Not to mention, another factor which played a big role in affecting the outcome of my results was that the grape juice when placing it into the test tube might have not been distributed equally around the potato cylinder as I found it to be sticky and would take time to slide down when touching the test tube. So, each potato cylinders may have contained different amount of sugar thus affecting the rate of osmosis.