Along with that enzymes can only work in specific temperatures and specific pHs as well. If the temperature or pH is too high or to low, they won 't work as quickly or may not work at all. For enzymes there are two main hypothesizes, these are know as the induced fit hypothesis and the lock and key hypothesis. In the induced fit hypothesis the binding of the substrate changes the shape of the enzyme’s active site.
What is the Catalase enzyme? Catalase, an enzyme that brings about (catalyzes) the reaction by that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Mostly found in organisms that live in the presence of oxygen, catalase prevents the build-up of and protects cellular organelles and tissues from damage by peroxide, which is constantly produced by frequent metabolic reactions.
Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the rate of a reaction without being chemically changed. Enzymes are globular proteins that contain an active site. A specific substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme chemically and structurally (4). Enzymes also increase the rate of a reaction by decreasing the activation energy for that reaction which is the minimum energy required for the reaction to take place (3). Multiple factors affect the activity of an enzyme (1).
An investigation of the relationship between different concentrations of Sodium Chloride and the rate of reaction of Amylase Marjolijn Hoogevoorst Yeshvanth Prabakar IS12 Word count: 2222 words Introduction: Enzymes are biological catalysts that speed up reactions by lowering the activation energy. Amylase is a type of digestive enzyme found in the pancreases and saliva of humans. Amylase breaks down starch into sugar, allowing large molecules to be digested easily.
The three things that can cause the enzyme to denature is a large change in pH level, High Temperature, and substrate concentration. According to our knowledge, we know that a large change in pH will cause instability in the protein structure thus resulting in denaturation of the enzyme. From the data, we can see that pH 3 (total:6.3) and 10 (total:6.2) were the slowest because pH 3 is probably the highest acid and pH 10 is the highest base. The highest acid or base pH represents a large change which would cause the enzyme to denature. The fastest pH was 6 (total:34.5), and it seems that there wasn’t a large change which resulted in a stable structure.
Dependant and Independent Variables: The Dependent Variables: Amount of time it takes when the bubbles start to rise till when they stop. The Independent Variable: Amount of Hydrogen Peroxide solution. The Controlled/ Fixed Variables are: • The amount of hydrogen peroxide inserted in each test tube.
Research Question: How does increasing the concentration (1%, 3%, 5%) of amylase from the pancreas affect the rate of the breakdown of starch solution, measured by the time taken for the starch to turn into simple sugars using a stopwatch (0.01s) Personal Engagement: The reason why I chose to do concentration was because I found it to be the most interesting out of all the options. I wanted to learn about how both enzyme and substrate concentrations affect the rate of reaction. Learning about enzyme concentration is not of any significance to me, and I chose it just out of curiosity. *Background Information: Enzymes act as catalysts to kickstart and speedup the rate of reaction without being used up.
Effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity Exploration: Introduction: Catalase is an enzyme normally found in many plant and animal tissues. Its purpose is to destroy toxic substances like hydrogen peroxide which is a byproduct in many cellular reactions. In this lab, we will use a catalase solution from yeast and determine the effect of substrate concentration on the action of this enzyme. The substrate of the enzyme will be different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
The aim of the investigation was to determine the effect of pH on the rate at which catalase decomposes hydrogen peroxide and consequently answer the researchable question “How does pH influence cells and consequently an organism”. The hypothesis, “As the pH deviates from 7 the initial rate of oxygen production will decrease” is supported by the results. The trend displayed in Figure 3 is, as the pH deviates from 7 the initial rate of reaction decreases. Figure 3 shows that the rate of reaction (%O2/s) decreases substantially as the pH increases and decreases to 8 and 6 respectively from a pH of 7.
Enzymes are catalysts in biological systems, that lower the activation energy, so that molecules can begin reacting with each other. Since enzymes have a very selective active site, if the enzyme shape is changed or denatured, it won’t allow the enzyme to bind. Catalytic enzymes break down the toxic hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas. (Bryer) (Baker) The purpose of these labs were to see how different concentrations of pH, and hydrogen peroxide would affect the enzymes, catalase and
2) Free Radicals: an injury by free radicals such as the reactive oxygen species, also known as oxidative stress (Huether & McCance, 2012, p. 66). This is an uncharged atom that makes the molecule unstable. In order to become stabilized, it needs to either get an electron or give up its electron. By doing this, it forms chemical bonds with protein,