In the late 1830’s, where the United States was growing rapidly, whites faced an obstacle while trying to settle in the South. This area of land was home of the Cherokee and other Indian tribes. The Cherokee Indians signed treaties hoping that white settlers would not come for their land. Prompted by the state of Georgia along with the president, Andrew Jackson, whom did not like Indians, expelled the Cherokee Indians from their homeland. Cherokee’s pleas to Georgia and the Supreme Court did little to stop their removal.
The Indians that left their homeland would be granted by the president land west of the Mississippi River, and this law would extend financial and material assistance on their travel. With this act in effect, Americans were permitted to influence, bribe, and threaten tribes
in 1826 to accompany Micanopy for preliminary meetings regarding the future Payne’s Landing Treaty (1832) earned him his freedom. While Abraham received his freedom from Micanopy, his free status would not be formally recorded until 1835. Although Southeastern Native American mythology regarded the African American as an inferior being to both Indians and whites, they understood that African Americans played an influential role in negotiating treaties with the federal government and respected their participation. This treaty was being created to further expedite the moving of the Seminoles out of Florida since the earlier Treaty of Moultrie Creek did not address the issue of removal from Florida. While the Moultrie Creek treaty specified removal from Florida within 20 years or so, the federal government desired to shorten the time to three years with the Payne’s Landing
The Cherokee were a tribe of Indians who were affected by the Indian removal acts of the early 1800’s. The Cherokee showed multiple signs of being “civilized” towards the Americans. For example, the Cherokee expressed claimed the “Federal government they were obligated to honor the treaties guaranteeing the sovereignty to the Cherokee”(6). This is important because it demonstrates the fact the Cherokee can claim their sovereignty over a section of land. The sovereign rights of the Cherokee could also suggest that they are ready to participate in a civilized life showing their assimilation to the Americans.
Americans were rather hostile towards Native Americans, partially because of a predisposition of them being savages, but also because they had a tremendous amount of difficulty sharing the land. In 1819 when the US purchased florida, they drove out a tribe who had been living there to escape american authorities and placed them in a reservation in central florida. When Native americans attempted to use US law to fight back (1828 supreme court case, Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia) and won, the president at the time disregarded the ruling and placed the Cherokee in Oklahoma. The last blow came from the 1830 - Indian Removal Act which allowed the president to negotiate with the remaining native americans to move them to the west of the mississippi.
The Georgia government recognized that Worcester was influential in the Cherokee resistance movement and enacted a law that prohibited "white persons" from residing within the Cherokee Nation without permission from the state. When I first started researching the case, the sources I looked at gave no mention to the fact that Worcester was wanted and welcomed in the territory, or that he was helping the Cherokees with legal issues. The fact that he was helping with legal issues is probably the main reasons the Georgia government wanted him off the territory, as they wanted the Cherokees out of their boundaries.
Many Native Americans tried to fit in with American culture, by learning to write and read, establishing governments similar to those of the United States, develop their own written languages, and start a plantation system with slavery. However, it was not sufficient. The New American still did not like the Native Americans, and wanted them to go. President Andrew Jackson was the one who thought of immediate solutions to the problem. Indian threaten westward expansion in the mid-nineteenth century with Second Seminole War, Treaty of New Echota, and Trail of Tears, To begin with, the Second Seminole War started after the passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1830.
White politicians, many of whom were former yeoman, were the biggest supporters of white superiority and a continuation of slavery. This was due to their failed plans “to translate successes here into social or economic gains”. Many years later, after Reconstruction, the Redeemers, who were Southern capitalist Whigs, pushed hard for industry and left black and white farmers behind. This gave rise to the Populist movement, which included both whites and blacks. Both sides put aside racial differences in order to improve their condition.
As a result of white settlers coming to the Mississippi, the government had to do something. Federal relations with Indian tribes were centered on trading, wars, and treaty making. In an 1831 decision, the Supreme Court described tribes as "domestic dependent nations" that had broad latitude to create their own laws within tribal areas. (e.g. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 30 U.S. 1 1831). The federal government signed
The American government of the late 1800’s adopted the policy of assimilation because they were influenced by the desire to expand westward into territories occupied by these Native American tribes. All Native American tribes, lived to the west of the Mississippi River. These American Indians, some from the Northwestern and Southeastern territories, were confined to Indian Territory. The Native Americans had endured nearly a century of forced removal westward.
During the early to mid 1800s, the colonization of “Indians” and subordination of “women’s rights in the American society,” was very essential to those in authority. They were perceived as a mere means to an end by promises of a better life in exchange for “land and work.” Although locals complied, those in offices took advantage by using antagonistic tactics in achieving wealth, power, and ownership. However, these actions lead to “The First Seminole War, The Monroe Doctrine, Andrew Jackson’s leadership, The Indian Removal Act, The California Gold Rush, The Seneca Falls Convention, and the Birth of the Republican Party.” Although some Americans have been perceived as heroes, their actions have said otherwise about their character.
The Trail of Tears was a really dark time for the Native Americans. Which is a topic many of us skip over or don’t go into much detail about. Knowing what we have done wrong in the past helps us not to make the same mistake again and guide us as a nation. The Trail of Tears was like the Holocaust to all the Native Americans. There were all these white Americans that wanted the land that the natives had owned and president Andrew Jackson decided to use the Utilitarianism model which wasn’t the best option in this case.
Imagine being forced to leave your home, just for the reason of white settlers needing land to plant cotton. In 1814, Andrew Jackson from Tennessee commanded, the U.S. military forces that defeated a faction of the Cherokee nation. In their defeat, they lost 22 million acres of land. The Cherokees were given two years to migrate voluntarily, at the end of the two years the Cherokees would be removed by force. In 1838 only 2,000 had migrated and 16,000 remained on the land.
President Andrew Jackson’s Second Annual Message to Congress of 1830 was used to specifically address Jackson’s stance on how and why Indian removal would be beneficial to white settlements. The document was written by Andrew Jackson December 6, 1830 for Congress. President Jackson’s message on Indian removal claimed to pay whole expenses and settlement. In addition to completely separating Indians from white settlements; liberating Indians from government power and allow them to run under their own institutions. Nonetheless, Jackson was also hoping Indians would be rid of their “savage ways” and be influenced by the Christian community.
In Andrew Jackson’s letter to the Congress he explains how the whites and the Indians would now be separated. This starts a large chain effect on segregation throughout history. This law is a social factor because it separated the Indians and the whites, causing them to live completely separate lives from each other. At one point he also states that a collision between the two would be dangerous. This is also a social factor because it implies that white people should and are seen differently than the Indians by saying that their land isn’t important, therefore we are going to take it.