The cardiovascular system helps blood circulate through a network of vessels in the body to give single cells oxygen and nutrients. The cardiovascular system in our body consists of the heart and blood vessels which are further more split in to capillaries, arteries and veins. The human heart pumps the blood via the blood vessels and is split in to four sections. The right side of the heart moves poorly oxygenated blood and the left side is responsible for moving highly oxygenated blood. Oxygenated blood that is pumped throughout the body by the arteries which is then supplied to the body tissue as they need to survive.
Intercalated discs Heart: One full cardiac cycle takes about 0.8 second, so it needs a much specified tissues and cells to hold on this precise function. Tissues of cardiac muscle are responsible in the process of pumping blood via contracting the heart muscle which causes moving the blood throughout the entire body parts. (Wiley, 2012) The two atria in the heart have relatively thin walls, and it works as chamber to collect blood returned to the heart. These thin walls are enough to pump the blood to a short distance only to the ventricles. But the walls of the ventricles are much thicker and powerful because it is responsible of pumping the blood from the heart to all body organs via organized circuit.
The two branches of the ANS system are SNS which stands for sympathetic nervous system and the PNS which stands for parasympathetic nervous system. The SNS triggers the “fight or flight” response, it originated in the spinal cord. SNS prepares the body to put our energy and to protect it from effects of injury. SNS shuts the gut down, speeds up the heart, increases blood pressure, dilates pupils, makes more glucose available in the blood for energy. PNS is sometimes referred to as the “rest and digest” system.
Introduction: Physiology is that branch of biology which deals with the functions of living systems. It also seeks to understand the individual development of functions and their alternation and adaptation with the continuously changing environments. The microscopic organisms often rely on molecular diffusion to provide them with nutrients and to remove waste products from them, whereas large organisms require more efficient means of transporting materials within their bodies. This transportation is accomplished using flowing liquids and gases. For example, Oxygen is swept into the lungs through a network of airways wherein the Oxygen diffuses into blood across the walls of alveoli and is then pumped by the heart through an extensive network
INTRODUCTION High altitude cause many problem in human being due to sudden fall in atmospheric pressure at higher altitude decreases the partial pressure of inspired oxygen and hence the driving pressure for gas exchange in the lungs . For sustain a life aerobic organisms require oxygen is an essential element for their metabolic activity. It is used to final acceptor of electrons in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, where it allow the process of oxidative phosphorylation and the generation of cellular energy, in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Cell requires a constant ratio of ATP for the survival under the normoxic condition. [2,3] Therefore, hypoxia leads to a condition of which inadequate level of oxygen is supplied to the
This system consists of the salivary glands, pharynx, mouth, esophagus, liver, gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, small and large intestine, and the anus. The brain controls drinking and feeding behavior and controls muscles for eating and elimination. The in return the digestive system sends sensory information to the
Introduction Metabolism is the sum of all anabolic and catabolic reactions within a living organism to sustain life. The energy required to perform these reactions is provided by oxygen in the form of ATP, therefore the oxygen consumption rate can be measured to determine the metabolic rate. Since oxygen is obtained through respiration, the efficiency of an organism’s respiratory system affects its metabolism. Previous studies have shown that caffeine affects the human respiratory center and occasionally dilates bronchus. It can thus stimulate human respiration and increase the metabolic rate (Haggins et al, 1915).
The cardiovascular system gets rid of waste products and oxygen and nutrients is brought to the body by it. This system is made up of the blood, blood vessels and the heart. These work together to transport the oxygen and nutrients. The cardiovascular system additionally helps to control an individuals temperature, spreading proteins and hormones and various other chemicals to different parts of the body. In the cardiovascular system the heart moves the blood around the body (acts like a pump) and different types of blood vessels (e.g.
The circulatory is a system which works along with the cardiovascular system. The main function of the system is the transportation of oxygen throughout the body and the removal of carbon dioxide. In the cardiovascular system the linkage of organs includes the heart, blood vessels and blood. Heart failure is a disease that could develop within the circulatory system. There are numerous ways one can contract this disease which includes, unhealthy eating habits, smoking, excessive amount of sugar within the blood or inflammation of the blood vessel.