We hear of stories of how Christopher Columbus accidently discovered America or the New World. Most of our history books indicate the settlers were the ones that helped shaped this new world. We tend to forget how new explorers also impacted America. Christopher Columbus and the rest of Europe coming to America changed the globe by igniting import and export and bridged the Atlantic Ocean between the two worlds. The “Columbus Exchange” is the exchange of technology, diseases, animals, and plants between Europe and the Americas.
Exam Paper 1 In what ways did the American West of the late nineteenth century represent a contrast to the East? In what ways did the two regions resemble each other? The contrasts between the American West and East in the nineteenth century range from a new start to the adventure of the living in the Wild West. The east had become overcrowded and did not allow much opportunity for people of lesser wealth. “In 1893, the historian Frederick Jackson Turner gave a celebrated lecture, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” in which he argued that on the western frontier the distinctive qualities of American culture were forged: individual freedom, political democracy, and economic mobility.
Historians differ on what they think about the net result of the European arrival in the New World. Considering that the Columbian Exchange, which refers to “exchange of plants, animals, people, disease, and culture between Afro-Eurasia and the Americas after Columbus sailed to the Americas in 1492,” led to possibly tens of millions of deaths on the side of the American Indians, but also enabled agricultural and technological trade (Henretta et al. 42), I cannot help but reflect on whether the effects should be addressed as a historical or a moral question. The impact that European contact had on the indigenous populations of North America should be understood as a moral question because first, treating it as a historical question is difficult due to lack of reliable historical evidence; second, the meaning of compelling historical claims is contestable as the academic historian perspective tends to view the American Indian oral history as invalid; and finally, what happened to the native Indians is morally repulsive and must be discussed as such. The consequences of European contact should be answered as a moral question because historically, it is hard to be historically objective in the absence of valid and dependable historical evidence.
When William Cronon, a renowned environmental historian, penned Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England, he wanted to bring awareness to the ecological effects of the European’s arrival to New England. Many history books focus exclusively on the people, towns, governments, religions, and so on in pre-Colonial New England; however, the thesis of Cronon’s book, which was originally published in 1983, was to show that we can analyze what changes happened to the plants and animals of New England as the settlers gained power and supremacy over the area once occupied by none other than the Native Americans. As stated in the beginning of the book, “the shift from Indian to European dominance in New England entailed important changes—well known to historians—in the ways these
It was Alfred Crosby who introduced the term ‘ecological imperialism’ to designate this form of environmental destruction caused under the supervision of Western imperialism. According to him, European imperialism is integrally associated with invading the indigenous region with ‘portmanteau biota’ (his collective term for the organisms brought by the colonizers) and/or exploiting the natural resources for their own benefit. In fact, there is a direct correlation between Western imperialism and environmental degradation in the colonized countries. The European colonizers created ‘Neo-Europes’ in regions which are climatically similar to the European countries, they were apparently less successful in the Middle East, China and Indian subcontinent. But this apparent failure is more than compensated by the unrelenting destruction of natural resources, flora and fauna, for their mercenary gains.
Key Words:Ethnic culture, Eco-space,Postcolonialism, Ego-centrism, Celtic tradition, Gaia. Introduction Colonial attitude of limitless progress at the expense of nature had redefined the cultural as well as the linguistic paradigms of Ireland for many centuries. The ecological attitudes of Ireland had undergone radical changes as a result of European invasion and settlement. Seamus Heaney tries to create an eco-space in his poetry firmly grounding his beliefs and attitude in the native ethnic culture Ireland. It seems that the cultural displacements as a result of the colonization have resulted in modifying his ecological sensibilities.
Charles Rosenberg argues that by 1866, moralistic concepts of disease had faded and “scientific values and habits of thought” (Rosenberg 232) gained prevalence. While this is true of the 1866 cholera epidemic, it does not accurately predict the future development of the conception of disease. Although scientific thought steadily increased in prominence, moral judgements rose once again with the advent of germ theory. This essay investigates the context surrounding Rosenberg’s statement, comparing it to Terence Powderly’s 1902 warning of “the menace to the nation’s health of the new immigrants” (Powderly, 1902). It first argues that the post-civil war environment facilitated the waning of religious and moral judgments as the basis for the
England began colonizing the Americas in the early 1600’s, the first step in creating the United States we know today. The development of these colonies, historians argue, was most greatly affected by environmental and geographic variations. I support, yet modify, this statement to be that the individual culture of each colony was shaped by the area’s geographical features and surroundings. It was not the people that determined the culture, but the peoples reaction to their geography that molded the culture. Therefore, the main influencer was the geography and natural features of the land.
The beginning of the white American settlement led to major changes in the relationship between Indians and whites. The mixed world dissolved, and it created new social boundaries in federal government policies and in redefining social boundaries at local levels. The creating of social boundaries changed the economy in the northwest as the dual labor system emerged. In Richard White’s essay, The Organic machine, he demonstrates how the new American culture organized energy in different ways, mainly using steam and coal power, which changed the human-river relationship that had been established for centuries. White discussed how the White men were not working with the river but forcing it to yield the products of its energy in a manner that fit their needs.
The origin of the American environmental justice movement can be known as the emergence of the American Civil Rights movement in 1960 and the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964. Although there is a relationship between environmentalism and environmental justice, there is a significant difference between them. Environmentalism is a concern for humanity 's adverse impact on the environment. The environmental justice movement differs from those of the environmentalist movement in that, at the heart of environmental injustice, there are issues of racism and socio-economic injustice. The first part of this research paper examines closely the concise definition and the history of environmental injustice, and the second part of this research paper focuses
1) The Immigration Act of 1907 created the Dillingham Commission to review U.S. immigration policy. In 1911 the Dillingham Commission produced a report that highlighted the differences between Old Immigrants vs New Immigrants and the effect on the social, cultural, physical, economic, and moral welfare of the nation. The Dillingham Commission Report favored the "old immigrant" who had come from North Western areas of Europe as opposed to the "new immigrant" who came from South Eastern areas of Europe and other parts of the world. The argument of Old Immigrants vs New Immigrants concluded that immigration from southern and eastern Europe posed a serious threat to American society and should therefore be greatly reduced. 2) Jane Addam founded Hull-House in Chicago, which would eventually become the most famous settlement house in the US.
Historians who practice historiography agree that the writings from the beginning of what is now known as the United States of America can be translated various ways. In James H. Merrell’s “The Indians’ New World,” the initial encounters and relationships between various Native American tribes and Europeans and their African American slaves are explained; based on Merrell’s argument that after the arrival of Europeans to North America in 1492, not only would the Europeans’ lives drastically change, but a new world would be created for the Native Americans’ as their communities and lifestyles slowly intertwined for better or worse. Examples of these changes include: “deadly bacteria, material riches, and [invading] alien people.” (Merrell 53)