Intelligence is the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills. It is the ability to reason well, judge well and understand well. Intelligence has been defined in many different ways including as one 's capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving. It can be more generally described as the ability or inclination to perceive or deduce information, and to retain it as knowledge to be applied towards adaptive behaviors within an environment or context. Within the discipline of psychology, various approaches to human intelligence have been adopted.
Throughout the decades, intelligence theories have been a subject of debate within the education psychology field of study. Numerous researchers have suggested varying forms of intelligence from an overall ability to a wide range of skills and talents (Waterhouse, 2006). One of the major theories in psychology is the multiple intelligence theory (MIT) introduced by Howard Gardner. In 1983, Howard suggested it in one of his books, Frames of Mind. According to Gardner, human intelligence involves a configuration of several complementary abilities in an individual (Owens & Valesky, 2011).
How We Learn Multiple Intelligences (M.I) was a theory Howard Gardner developed in 1983. This is a theory of intelligences were a good way to explain the different ways that people learn. This theory explains how people learn and others learn in different ways. Intelligence is the ability to understand, learn and problem solve or creativity that are valued within one or more cultural settings”. Gardner found that there are eight intelligences and could possibly be more.
Advantages/strengths of Howard Gardner’s theory: 1. Helps to explain that an individual has a variety of different understandings in different types of multiple intelligence. 2. The theory was based upon educational evidence and case studies. Disadvantages/weaknesses of Howard Gardner’s theory: 1.
How intelligence can be measured has been debated for several years by different psychologists. Howard Gardner had a theory of multiple intelligences; the idea that people vary in their ability levels across different domains of intellectual skill. The book talked about eight different intelligences including verbal/linguistic, body-kinesthetic, and logical mathematical. This theory seemed quite logical since different people are good at different things. There are several different real-world examples of people who fall under these categories including Martin Luther King Jr., Serena Williams, and Isaac Newton.
For one simple reason, because that the ninth intelligence, meaning the Existential one, has been alluded to by Gardner, yet has never been fully confirmed, endorsed or described. Gardner 's Multiple Intelligences theory is a very useful model for developing a systematic approach to nurturing and teaching children and honouring their individual needs and strengths within a classroom setting. The theory of Multiple Intelligences includes the notion that each person is smart in all seven (or nine) types of intelligences. According to Gardner, each individual possesses each type of intelligence in varying degrees, stronger in some ways and less developed in others. 34 By broadening one’s view of intelligence, as well as valuing and nurturing abilities other than mathematics and reading, doors can be opened by using the strength of children as a means of complementing their less developed area.
Gardner realized intelligence goes beyond being able to learn and retain information. That was why he added interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences to his original seven intelligences (Gardner, 2002). Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory assists supporting the belief that “every individual possesses every single one of the intelligences, but to different extents, and it is through education that each of these intelligences can be nurtured and developed” (Mokhtar, Majid, & Foo, 2008, p. 96). In the theory of multiple intelligences, Gardner tried to show the notion of multiple intelligences. Through his research, Gardner recognized that intelligence is neither fixed nor static.
The more recent Theory of Multiple Intelligences (Gardner, 1983) completely opposes this, proposing over seven modalities of intelligence. Robert Sternberg has taken a middle ground (Sternberg, 1999). He admits that there is a huge breadth of evidence for the
It was first published in his book ‘Frames of Mind : The theory of Multiple Intelligence. (1983)’ Gardner challenged the notion of ‘g’ and gave a broad base to the concept of intelligence and its measurement by providing a multiple frame. He asserted that human intelligence can be best described as a set of individual’s multiple abilities related to a multiple number of domains of knowledge in a particular cultural setting .Elaborating his pluralistic view of intelligence he concluded that there are nine types of intelligence and each one is relatively autonomous and capable of functioning independently of the others. They are Linguistic, Logical-mathematical, Spatial, Musical, Bodily-Kinaesthetic, Interpersonal, Intra-personal, Naturalistic, Existential etc.. Linguistic Intelligence is responsible for all kinds of linguistic competence –abilities which can be best broken down into components like syntax, semantics, pragmatics, written or oral expression and understanding. This type of intelligence is most visible in lawyers, lecturers, writers and
It defines intelligence as a set of abilities, talents, or mental skills that permit an individual to solve problems or fashion products that are of outcome in a particular cultural setting. This theory, while providing a comprehensive view of the human cognitive structure, believes that there are seven independent types of intelligence (developing differently in different people) ranging from linguistic and logical-mathematical abilities to intrapersonal and interpersonal