Howard Gardner's Theory Of Multiple Intelligences

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Dr. Howard Gardner has developed the theory of multiple intelligences (MI) by the research in developmental and neuropsychology which began in the early 1970s. MI theory is based on the belief that human beings posses a complex set of abilities beyond what is measured through traditional Intelligence Quotient (IQ).The theory was first published in his book “Frames of Mind” in 1983. According to Conti (2016, p.1) “This theory views human intelligence as a complex web of abilities that are evident in one 's products and preferences for learning.” Gardner (1995) reported that his concept of intelligences is a derivative of accumulating knowledge about the human brain and human cultures, not based on the result of deduced definitions or of factor analyses of test scores. The notion of learning styles, which became popular in the 1950’s is often confused with MI theory. However, MI theory is different with the learning styles theory where learning styles refers to personality characteristics or preferences that are evident in the process of learning. Intelligence refers to the ability to solve a problem, perform a skill, or deliver a service (Shearer, 2004, as cited in Conti, 2016). Originally, Dr. Howard Gardner defined seven key intelligences as: Linguistic intelligence, Logical-mathematical intelligence, Musical intelligence, Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, Visual-spatial intelligence, Interpersonal intelligence, Intrapersonal intelligence. Smith (2002, 2008) stated that
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