With disillusion rising a Protestant Reformation began. There were two major leaders that led the Protestant Reformation in Europe. The first was Martin Luther who wrote “95 Theses”, which were new religious beliefs, and nailed them to the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church. Eventually, he was outlawed and found refuge with Saxon princes, but his ideas continued to spread throughout Germany
He lived in Geneva briefly until he was forced to leave by the anti-protestant authorities in 1538, but was then invited back to Geneva in 1541. Upon returning to Geneva he became an important spiritual and political leader. Using Protestant principles, he established a religious government and in 1555 he was given absolute supremacy as leader in Geneva. John Calvin’s government punished dissent against his view of Christianity with execution. During his first 5 years of his rule in Geneva he had a number of people that he had either executed or exiled.
‘While Pope Damasus was alive, he could shield Jerome from criticism, but now Jerome faced the vengeance of the enemies he made” (Ward 32). Both prominent pagans who resented his promotion of the faith and fellow Christians who lacked his wit attacked him with vicious rumors. Among the rumors were accusations that he was behaving inappropriately with the woman we now know as Paula. At that time, she was one of his students in
Martin Luther was born on November 10, 1483, in Eisleben, Germany. His parents were peasants who were superstitious and religious and wished for Martin Luther to become a lawyer. Luther entered the University of Erfurt in 1501, and in 1502 he received his bachelor 's degree and later his master 's degree in 1505. On July 2, 1505, Martin Luther was walking near Stotternheim, when a thunderstorm came upon him. Luther vowed that if he could make it out of the thunderstorm alive, he would become a monk.
He only allows Kambili and Jaja to visit him fifteen minutes at a time. Eugene brainwashes his children into thinking that Papa Nnukwu takes part in “devilish folklore” and that the Igbo tradition is “evil”. When Eugene sees the painting of Papa Nnukwu that Kambili kept, he beats Kambili until she is hospitalized, again using violence as discipline. Eugene is very set in his ways and follows the rules of Christianity religiously, that is why when he sees Kambili eating the morning her period starts he beats the whole family, not questioning why the rules were broken or considering that there could be a reason for it. Another example of Eugene’s patriarchal role is when he orders the children to pray for forgiveness when they stay with their Papa Nnukwu for longer than fifteen minutes.
Later Justin moved to Rome, founded a Christian school, and wrote two bold apologies (i.e., defenses—from the Greek apologia). Justin 's First Apology, addressed to Emperor Antoninus Pius, was published in 155 and attempted to explain the faith. Christianity was not a threat to the state, he asserted, and should be treated as a legal religion. He wrote "on behalf of men of every nation who are unjustly hated and reviled." His efforts however proved to not be enough as the emperor ordered his death shortly
(p.117) He had a revelation about religion and it was that “Christ himself was hiding in weakness,” therefore real faith comes out of those experiencing hardships. (p.118) Here, he became truly interested in the oppressed, confused by how Christianity and racism—paradoxical in his mind— can coexist. His “six-month immersion in American black Christianity” can be construed as the foreshadowing of his passion for resistance against the German Christians and Nazi regime who were persecuting the Jewish people.
Martin Luther’s contribution to reformation thought Martin Luther (15th and 16th centuries) was born of a peasant parents, his father being a coal miner. His mother was a godly woman, who insisted that his son receive a good education. Martin Luther was concerned for his salvation, so he abandoned law and entered the Augustinian monastic order. Stages in his spiritual pilgrimage include: • A study of Paul, which led him to reject salvation by works in favor of salvation by grace based on faith only. • He advanced greatly in the Augustinian order and, in 1511; he went to Rome on monastic business.
In the early 17th century Punjab, Sikh societies were deeps divided by their communal identities because of contrasting needs from their Sikh communities. Guru Arjan was executed before choosing a successor to be the next guru. Being the descendent of Guru Arjan, his son Guru Hargobind was the next to become successor. However, Miharvan who was the son of Prithichand challenged Guru Hargobind’s way of lifestyle, appearance and vision when it came to taking lead the Sikh community. The two cousin brothers were rival Sikh gurus both with different visions of Sikhism in the 17th century.
Just like John Paul II whose funeral mass saw united together around his remains political and religious leaders whom he had been trying to put together during his lifetime, the message of Gandhi to imitate Christ and to unite was well understood. The cathedral was full and in a festive mood. The rector of the cathedral took up the floor and said “today this service is in memory of Mahatma Gandhi who has just been assassinated. He intoned a hymn and the populace responded. Here is a paraphrased translation from the French version of what he
This was when a German priest and scholar Martin Luther nailed to the church door in Wittenberg, a city in eastern Germany, his list of ninety-five theses, or statements, questioning the practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Luther believed that people should live their lives by following the Bible, not the pope. He pointed and exposed the corruption he had witnessed in the church. His call for reform brought about the rise of Protestant churches throughout Europe. As it would in other European countries, the era of reformation and