Human Development: Adolescence

1016 Words5 Pages
Human Development - Adolescence PSY1009 10/6/2017 Kamilah Vein – 1602511 Words: 999 Tutor: Tsietso Mafoso (Tuesday 14:15-15:00) Human Development refers to the psychological and biological development of a person throughout their lifespan. This development consists of the transitions from infancy, to childhood, to adolescence and finally to adulthood. In this essay I shall discuss the development of adolescence to adulthood with focus on the theoretical approach to physiological, cognitive, soci-emotional, psycho-sexual, moral and identity development. Using Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory (1979, 1995) and the given case study, I shall highlight how the four different systems (microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem and macrosystem)…show more content…
The closest layer to the child is the microsystem which refers to the relationships and interactions within their immediate surroundings. Structures found in this system include family, friends and school environments. This is where bi-directional influences are strongest because a child can be influenced by their parents, but the parents can be influenced by their child. This can be seen in the way that Sipho’s grandmother prohibits alcohol and other substances in the house which results in his well upbringing, but Themba’s gang influence from his friends furthers his involvement in toxic behaviours and crime. The mesosystem provides the connection between the structures in the child’s life, such as the relationship between a child’s parent and teacher. The exosystem is the layer where the child does not function directly, such as Sipho’s mother’s workplace in the city. Sipho is not directly affected by his mother’s work, but because of it he was only able to see his mother twice a year. The macrosystem is the outermost layer in a child’s environment. This system encompasses cultural values, customs and laws (Berk, 2000). In relation to the case study, Sipho’s mother does not associate to the belief that parents are solely responsible for raising and caring for their children and has left her son in the care of his grandmother in order to work; therefore Sipho’s macrosystem does not fit the cultural
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