Lumbar lordosis (30-500) and 4. Sacral kyphosis (not more than 400). ANATOMICAL PLANES: Coronal or frontal plane: It is a vertical imaginary line which divides the vertebral bodies into the front and back sections. The coronal plane of the spine delineates the scoliosis of spine.
The articular surface is enlarged by a fibrocartilaginous articular labrum. The lunate surface is crescentic and medially is has the acetabular notch through which the intrascapular ligament of the femoral head emerge and joins the femoral head to the acetabular fossa.
Where medial plantar nerve is associated with flexor hallucis brevis. Deep branch of lateral plantar nerve is associated with adductor halluces muscle and superfacial branch is associated with digiti minimi brevis muscle. Fourth Layer The fourth layer of intrinsic muscles is made with the plantar and dorsal interossei muscles. These two muscles work differently.
The tendon of the popliteus muscle is present between the lateral collateral ligament and the lateral meniscus.28 The medial collateral ligament is a flat band attached superiorly to the medial femoral condyle and inferiorly to the tibia shaft. It is also attached to the border of the medial meniscus.28 The oblique popliteal ligament is a tendon arising from the semimembranosus muscle. It reinforces the posterior aspect of the capsule.28 Figure 9: Extracapsular ligaments of knee
Nomenclature of intervertebral disc is such that it takes the name of the vertebra cephalad to it. The disc between L4 and 5 will be called L4 disc. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is present at the level of the intervertebral foramina and it is in the confines of the foramina. Three branches arise distal to the DRG- Ventral ramus, Dorsal ramus and sinuvertebral nerve. The ventral ramus is the most prominent and most important branch and it supplies the structures ventral to the neural canal.
The smaller and more posterior middle, superior, and supreme (if present) turbinates are outcroppings of the ethmoid bone. The supreme turbinate may be found in up to 65% of patients. The inferior turbinate is visualized by directing a nasal speculum parallel to the fl oor of the nasal cavity. The
rectus abdominis) is a thin strap-like muscle, enclosed between two sheets of the aponeurosis of the internal oblique, and separated from its fellow of the opposite side by the linea alba. The muscle originates from the lateral border of the sternum, including the xiphoid process; also the ventral surfaces of the 1st to 7th costal cartilages. Its insertion lies at the anterior end of the pubic symphysis (Bensley and Craigie, 1948). The deepest muscle of the abdominal wall is the transverse abdominal muscle (m. transversus abdominis) which originates from 7 posterior ribs, the middle layer of the lumbar fascia, and the inguinal ligament.
The convexed bulge is created by the presence of the middle ethmoidal air cells and as a result, it contains an ostium that drains this space. Located anteroinferiorly to the ethmoid bulla, and posterior to the uncinate process, is a curved furrow called the hiatus semilunaris. It contains the maxillary ostium and an accessory maxillary ostium towards the inferior aspect of the groove and the ostia of the anterior ethmoidal air cells anteriorly. This groove is continuous with the ethmoidal infundibulum, which courses superiorly and deep to the anterior aspect of the middle concha and lateral to the orbital plate of the ethmoid bone. The frontal sinus is therefor able to communicate with, and drain its contents into the ostiomeatal complex because of the connection between its frontonasal duct (recess) and the ethmoidal infundibulum.
DISSECTION METHOD TO APPROACH THE HUMAN CORACOID PROCESS OF THE SCAPULA 3.1 Introduction Dissection is a traditional approach to medical laboratory education(Waters, 2008). Using human cadavers one of the most widely used model in medical and clinical research for several decade .Considerable amount of literature have been published on different dissection methods of human body .(Romanes et al.,1986;Tank et al.,2008). These currant dissection manuals showed different approach to access different part of human body.
scapula and clavicle abduction Glenohumaral joint Internal rotation Flexion Extension Adduction Ulna, radius , humerus elbow – flexion, extension And elbow joint forearm - supination, pronation Phalanges adduction Carpals wrist hyperextension Pelvic girdle (hip joint) hip flexion Hyper extension Abduction Femure ( knee joint ) flexion Tibia, fibula (ankle joint ) ankle dorsiflexion Tarsals , calcaneus, cuboid extension Navicular, cuniform, Metatarsals, phalanges MUSCULAR ANALYSIS Neck hyper extension semispinalis capitis Splenus capitis Rectus capitis Posterior major Lattisimus
The chin or mandibular symphysis can be analyzed by looking at the profile of the mandibule. The shape of dental arcade can be determined by looking at the skull from a ventral view and analyzing the shape that the upper teeth generate. The dentition can be determined by analyzing the size of the overall teeth with the size of the overall facial size. Finally, the retromolar space can be identified by evaluating the space between the last molar and the rest of the
The authors also showed how HCPCS codes are used when healthcare providers provides education to the patient and/or their family. Gatlin, Mburu, Jackson, and Hunt briefly discuss International Classification of Disease 10th edition (ICD-10) and how healthcare providers have to adopt to a completely new alphanumeric language. In conclusion, Gaitlin, Mburu, Jackson, and Hunt has thoroughly discuss HCPCS and how important it is in healthcare billing. The authors provided two examples on HCPCS and CPT codes are used to help ensure accurate documentation for billing.
The ossicles were given their Latin names for their distinctive shapes; they are also referred to as the hammer, anvil, and stirrup, respectively. 6. Describe the factors that contribute to sound localization. Sound localization refers to a listener 's ability to identify the location or origin of a detected sound in direction and distance. It may also refer to the methods in acoustical engineering to simulate the placement of an auditory cue in a virtual 3D space (see binaural recording, wave field synthesis).