Just like Plato, Levinas thinks that human desire’s nature is for fulfilling. The message here is “I’m not just looking for someone; I’m looking only in the perspective of how they will be useful in my life”. Both in Plato’s and Levinas’s works, even enjoyment of ‘otherness’ and pure Eros tends to go back to satisfying one’s needs. In his essay “The Ambiguity of Love” Levinas writes, “Love aims at the Other; it aims at him in his frailty (faiblesse)”. People use other people as the answer to their needs.
Both Carr and Locke share a similar idea of the mind which is that experiences are the foundations of the mind. Nicholas Carr believes that technology has the ability to allow humans adapt to society. This excerpt, "A Thing Like Me," is about how technology becomes part of human lives in the sense that it should enhance their skills and not control their lives. In the excerpt, Carr states, "What makes us most human … is what is least computable about us - the connections between
Aristotles starting point is with the highest good. It is the ultimate end goal. The highest human good is always worth pursuing in its own right. It is an activity that is an end in itself. This conception allows him to isolate two features of what he determines the ‘end goal’ or ‘final purpose’.
Both St. Thomas Aquinas and Aristotle held that our ability to know is based on a knowledge of nature, specifically a knowledge of human nature. Human nature refers to the ways that one thinks, feels and acts. These are responses which humans tend to have naturally, independently of the influence of society. The argument on the relationship between human nature and knowing is fraught with problems. Sceptics claim that we can know nothing beyond our own current states of consciousness, i.e.
In short knowing and doing are in the same line. In knowing the truth your virtues will ultimately be guided by this knowledge. The “telos” or ultimate goal of human life for Aristotle is to attain “happiness”. “Happiness” here is does not mean the common meaning which we use everyday but it is more synonymous to the war “eudaimonia” which means to be in a state of being that is in good spirit. This emphasis that happiness is not just a temporary thing but a permanent outlook on life which means that they only way for us to truly know whether we have had a happy life is when we die.
Like anthropocentrism, speciesism is also seen as human beings and is given more preference than animals since we both belong to different species in some ways. Two different philosophers Singer and Steinbock view speciesism differently. First, Singer has argued that both animals and human beings are being treated differently. Animals are being used for our needs without any regards for their pain and suffering, according to Singer. Whereas, Steinbock has said that there is nothing wrong being speciesism, where we put human need before those of
In Plato, the supreme ideal of human life is to recognize the idea of the Good. For Aristotle, reason is what makes a person human, and he said that virtue is best realized in the communal life of the polis (city-state) and that the human being is a social animal (or polis-animal). Greek philosophers, generally speaking, held the view that reason is the essence of human nature, and that if a person 's reason is allowed to operate fully, that person will become an ideal being. According to Shadiya (2012), Karl Marx is a sociologist proposed a theory that human beings are the outcomes of the materials and economic circumstances. Therefore, they have no fixed and independent nature.
The values of humans and fulfilling their potential were emphasized. Humans were able to lead their own lives and create values of their own, not being led by godly figures. This change of thought and the view on the world impacted the culture which influenced art, literature, sciences, music, and various other aspects. Raphael’s The School of Athens reflects the values of humanism that were rebirthed during the Renaissance. Humanistic interests can be seen throughout the fresco in both the content and the style.
Why are we who we are? Or more importantly, why are we human? Why does humanity act, think, work, live the way that it does? This question can be difficult to answer, yet the majority of people agree that the answer to this question lies within the idea of the human condition. The human condition is a philosophical idea, which revolves around figuring out what makes humans human.
Aristotle insisted that the order of priority may decide whether one’s goal should be considered as a means or the goal itself. In other word, a goal with lower priority can be a method to achieve a goal with higher priority. In Aristotle’s viewpoint, happiness means the supreme good among other virtues, being the ultimate goal that human-beings pursue. Hence happiness cannot be an optional