Today I am going to give a tribute speech to James Phipps. James was born, in 18th-century England, to a poor laborer who worked as Edward Jenner’s gardener. Edward Jenner was a doctor and a scientist who noticed that the milkmaids working on his farm who caught Cowpox seemed to be immune when later exposed to Smallpox. Working on his new theory the Doctor took a surgical knife, James, and a milkmaid named Sarah Nelms, and made two small cuts on the boy 's arm. He then used the knife to open one of the Cowpox blisters on Sarah’s hand and smeared the pus from it onto James’ cut arm.
The vaccination was founded by Pasteur through monkeys and rabbits after injecting them with an attenuated strain of the rabies virus. The vaccination was proven to be successful towards humans when a nine-year-old was bitten by a rabid canine, and was treated on July 6, 1885. (Heritage 2013) The procedure was performed through an injection in the arm. The vaccination that was injected was created through pasteurization of the rabies virus.
Edward Jenner (1749-1823) was a physician in England who studied the spread and inoculation techniques formerly unknown for small pox. In this paper I will explain the thought process and the happenings by which Jenner discovered the relationship between small pox and cowpox via transmission to milkmaids, the process by which he tested his findings and proved the relationship with inoculations, and how he communicated his findings based on his work titled “An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, or Cow-Pox”. In the 18th century smallpox killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans (Bourzac). Variolation was a technique used to inoculate people from diseases in that time.
Years before he became a physician, he had heard tales of dairymaids were somehow protected from smallpox by somehow suffering cowpox. Cowpox is a disease that infects cows, caused by a virus of the same family as smallpox virus. He then tested his theory of immune from cowpox may cause subsequent immune from smallpox on an eight-year-old boy named James Phipps. He used the matters from a dairymaid 's pustule to inoculate James. James experienced few days of fever and discomfort, but soon he felt better.
Despite Jenner’s success, other physicians obtained differing results from vaccinating their patients; Jenner’s reputation was damaged (Robert np). Determined to find a cure, Jenner devoted all his spare time to his investigation. After several years, Jenner noticed that, from case-to-case, the cowpox pustules varied (Robert np). “He realized that only one special variety of the disease provided immunity from smallpox (Robert np).” By the early 1800’s, doctors realized that, whenever they followed his techniques correctly, Jenner had actually found the way to prevent smallpox.(Robert np).
He called this bacteria destroying mold penicillin. This was the world 's first antibiotic and it was created by accident. However Fleming was unable to purify and stabilize it, someone eventually would. He was awarded Nobel prize in 1945 for his discovery. (Alexander Fleming Biography)
Who moved to America at the age of 14. One day when he was diagnosed the report stated positive. I am going to explain this case study with the help to Biopsychosocial model. Biological factor, there is no biological cause that has caused him HIV since his parents didn’t have it nor he carried the gene which causes the disease and got HIV by sexual intercourse. Psychological factor, he was shocked when he came to know that he was infected by HIV.
HENRY JACOB BIGELOW: ADVOCATE OF ANESTHESIA Courtesy of: Today in Science History Dying is nothing,but pain is a very serious matter. -Henry Jacob Bigelow THESIS Dr. Henry Jacob Bigelow advocated for the use of anesthesia. Dr. Bigelow lived in the 1800s. It was a time when people had to go through surgery awake and in pain.
In 1995 when the chickenpox vaccine was administered in the United States, the death rates from the disease dropped as much as 97%. When a disease spreads, epidemiologist discover the basic reproduction number people in an unprotected environment. Preventable diseases like measles have a reproduction rate of 8-12 people and requires 83-94% of the community to be vaccinated for the disease not to end according epidemic studies done in 1993 . With human communities expanding past our own country, diseases can travel from around the globe and cause outbreaks. The only way to limit the effect of those outbreaks is through
In total measles ended 11,000 soldier’s life from both the Union and Confederate side (“Civil War Diseases”). Since all soldiers were close to together during the whole entire war the disease was able to spread rapidly to one solider and to the next solider (“Civil War Diseases”). Measles wasn’t as deadly as any other diseases that were contracted in the Civil War (“Civil War Diseases”). The Civil War was the start of frequently used practices and vaccinations. They started using amputation in a less advanced way but learned from their mistakes to only use amputation when it’s necessary.
Vaccines are made from all different ingredients and if a concern parent is involved in vaccinations then the parent should know everything about the vaccination. For example if a child has a allergic reaction to the shot but does not cause autism, he just gets light headed or a few bumps then maybe those are side effects. Side effects are better because the child may feel ill for a few days but that does not mean he will have autism or some form of it Nelson states the “WHO and other aid organizations helped to drive home the necessity of controlling diseases in developing countries” (Nelson 712). The World Health Organization controls the diseases and tries to not cause autism to children. Scientist also study the rates and ratios on vaccines too.
Cowpox is a rare disease and it was not until 1796 until Jenner was given the opportunity to try his theory of immunity for the pox. A dairymaid developed symptoms of the pox, so Jenner took material from an eruption on her hand using a thorn and inoculates an ill boy with the substance on the thorn. Soon, the boy developed cowpox, but recovered quickly. The expectation was that his immune system would develop a mild attack, survive, and become
Vaccination, How It started “ In 1790’s, Edward Jenner’s an English doctor, first to study and report the effects of the use of cowpox vaccination to prevent smallpox” (History of vaccines, 2005). Smallpox was believed to have existed way back in ancient times, from the time of the pharaoh through the Roman Empire and up to the present. It has caused the death of hundreds and thousands of people in the 1800’s.
Discussion 2: Whooping Cough Returns “Childhood vaccines are one of the great triumphs of modern medicine. Indeed, parents whose children are vaccinated no longer have to worry about their child’s death or disability from whooping cough, polio, diphtheria, hepatitis, or a host of other infections.” (Emanuel) Is it conceivable that outbreaks can be prevented with just dispensing a vaccination to our children? Can we eliminate dreadful diseases completely? Why are parents refusing to vaccinate their children? Vaccinations have virtually eradicated some diseases in the United States ever since the turn of the 20th century.