Water pollution is caused by many things, but one reason is because we put many chemicals in the rivers In the essay on water pollution: Sources, Effects and control of water pollution, by Puja Mondal explains “ several types of liquid effluents contaminating toxic chemicals, acid and bases, are added to the rivers and other water bodies. This quote explain how this toxic chemicals contaminated or water. Other thing that cause water pollution are the factories they contaminated a lot or water. In the essay on water pollution: sources, effects and control of water pollution by Puja Mondal, explains “ Many industrial are causing thermal pollution leading to higher temperatures… They use a lot of water to the steam at higher temperature, which affect the biotic components in the aquatic habit. This quote explain how this industries contributed to water pollution.
In surface water system, major point sources of pollution are municipal sewage treatment plant, industrial facilities and combined sewer overflows. In recent years, agriculture has been identified as the one of the most pervasive contribution to the non-point source of pollution of surface water and groundwater (Battle and Lipeles, 1993). Water pollution is highly costly in the effect it has on the health of human, other organisms and ecosystem and in the economic damage it inflicts on industries including agriculture. Aside from it’s effects on human health, water pollution causes widespread damage to aquatic ecosystem such as rivers, lakes, wastelands and costal marine areas. A survey by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found that more that 17,000(or 10%) of the nation’s streams, rivers and bays are significantly polluted (Michael and Schoch,
Turbidity is the measure of the clarity of the liquid. It is a visual characteristic of water. It causes the water to turn cloudy or opaque. Clay, silt, algae, divided inorganic and organic matter soluble colored organic compounds, and many other components will cause water to become turbid. In order to measure turbidity, a light is shown through the water and is measured in nephelometric turbidity units.
Ayoko et al. (2007) observed that usually communities that depend on untreated groundwater for domestic and agricultural purposes are communities that lack adequate infrastructures to monitor water quality regularly and implement control strategies due to poverty. Chenini I and Khemiri S. (2009) noticed that the chemical composition of groundwater is controlled by many factors that include the composition of precipitation, mineralogy of the aquifers, climate, and topography. They concluded that the effect of the combination of these factors can create diverse water types that change in composition spatially and temporally. It is important to mention here that the interaction between groundwater and the host rock is affected by some physical parameters such as temperature, pH, etc.
According to the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), Suspended materials can clog fish gills, which can reduce resistance to disease in fish, lower growth rates and affect egg and larval development. As particles settle, they can blanket the stream bottom, causing many problems. Precipitation highly affects how turbid a given stream is. This can affect plant life, aquatic life and human life. (Kuhels,
One is to take samples of the water and measure the concentrations of different chemicals that it contains. If the chemicals are dangerous or the concentrations are too great, we can regard the water as polluted. Measurements like this are known as chemical indicators of water quality. Another way to measure water quality involves examining the fish, insects, and other invertebrates that the water will support. If many different types of creatures can live in a river, the quality is likely to be very good; if the river supports no fish life at all, the quality is obviously much poorer.
The polluted water can damage the nervous system, liver, DNA and kidney. A type of pollution is soil pollution which causes cancers including leukemia etc. The presence of lead in soil is hazardous for young children and can damage to the brain. The high level of Hg can increase the risk of kidney damage and causes neuromuscular blockage.It also causes skin rashes,headaches,eye irritation,nausea and fatigue. The polluted air and water also affect animals such as acid rain destroys aquatic life in water bodies.We are observing a regular increment in the temperature and express the concern for global warming.
Continuous increase of urban communities beside water bodies such as rivers results in shortage of clean water supply. Improper waste disposal and lack of sanitation may result to water-borne diseases that were being carried by infectious pathogens such as a coliform bacterium (E.coli) from domestic effluents is one of examples of pollution. Pollution
Flood waters commonly contain high levels of bacteria. Small depressions filled with flood water provide an excellent breeding ground for bacteria. Whenever a well is inundated by flood waters or surface runoff, bacterial contamination is likely. Shallow wells and wells that do not have water-tight casings can be contaminated by bacteria infiltrating with the water through the soil near the well, especially in coarse-textured soils. Older water systems, especially, dug wells, spring-fed systems, and cistern-type systems are most vulnerable to bacterial contamination.
Heavy metals from motor vehicles and acid mine drainage Use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufactures leads to thermal pollution Effects of Water Pollution: Ground water contamination through pesticides causes reproductive damage within wild life in echo system. Disturbance in the natural ecological balance due to sewage, fertilizer and agricultural runoff containing organic materials into water and in turn increases the growth of algae which leads to depletion of ozone layer. Industrial chemicals and agricultural pesticides that got mixed up in water bodies’ effects aquatic environment and can accumulate with the fishes which are later eaten by humans, if the fishes are poisoned by the pollutants, interferers with the development of the nervous system in fetuses and young children. Water pollution leads to flooding, because of the accumulation of solid waste and soil erosion in streams and rivers. As Oil spills does not dissolve in water, it leads to suffocation for aquatic habitat.