5.3.2. Shell’s Crisis Shell SPDC as it’s called in Nigeria is the most controversial in the Niger Delta region and internationally too. There have been debates and its often questioning the existence of the corporation is conflict-affected regions. One of the most documented criticisms towards the company concerns their existence in the Delta region of Nigeria. Since the late 1950, Shell have been accused of making huge profits from oil exploration and doing little for their host communities in the Niger Delta in return , thus this situation precipitated crisis that threatened peace and stability in the Niger Delta region and Nigeria as whole.
What are the expectations of the Nigerian Local Content Act for its oil industry? To what degree do Chevron and Shell play along? To answer these questions stated above; the present academic literature will be a focus , as the will be reviewed and discussed to shade more light to the paper. 1.5 Significance of the study I have picked the Nigeria as a case for this study since Nigeria is the biggest oil producer in Africa, and host to several international oil companies in the Niger Delta region. Most African states are portrayed by insecurity, poor administration and one of the real causes is the presence and huge power the multinational oil enterprises enjoy in African nations.
This is a scary discovery when it comes to the lives of thousands of people. Agent Orange’s components have been found to be very deadly which is why it caused such a disaster to the Vietnamese population. The component 2,4,5-T was later found to contain a contaminant, TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachloroadibenzo para-dioxin) [dioxin] which is one of the most toxic chemicals known. One of the main ways that Agent Orange impacted Vietnam was economically. After the war, the Vietnamese economy was lagging way behind that of many other countries.
For instance, according to Kidane Mengisteab, the “Greater Horn region is one of the most conflict-ravaged areas on the African continent where the populations of the region have endured many inter-state and intra-state armed conflicts during the post-independence era” (Kidane, 2011:7). Similarly, other scholars explained the very insecure environment of the region as “Violent conflict is more the norm than the exception in the Horn of Africa” (Tadesse and Yonas 2007:1). The Ethiopia pastoralist ethnic groups of Afar and Issa are part of this politically sensitive region. Conflict between the ethnic groups caused by traditional cattle raids and competitions on pasturelands and water resources has been common. However, according to Asnake (2002), their conflict has been intensified and transformed in to frontier conflicts after the introduction of ethnic federalism and restructuring of the state post 1991.
Among them was slavery, state rights, and political matters. These conflicting views on major issues created significant events in history that tore the country apart. Many events dividing the north and the south on numerous controversial issues led up to the south seceding and ultimately The Civil War. (HistoryNet) Before all of this took commence, Tensions were on the rise between the north and the south over the spread of slavery. As America acquired more and more territories after the Mexican
Oil: pitching people against each other and destroying Earth’s habitat since the 19th century. It seems like the conversation on oil is never ending. Nations are constantly waging wars in order to possess the wealth that “black gold” brings. The devastation is inherent in the Middle East, where oil-rich nations and world powers constantly bargain for their gains using human lives. Oil burns and releases toxins and CO2, poking holes in the ozone layer.
Many injustices against non-white people occurred during this time period, slaves and the politics surrounding them were involved in the war, but a main group subject to the injustices were the Mexican citizens. In fact, many Americans considered Mexicans “but little removed above the negro”, as one Democratic newspaper put it. In Mexico, Native Mexicans were frequently mistreated or even murdered by men in the American Army, especially the volunteers. And throughout the American people in general, the feared “corruption” of America by Mexican Natives also had a large impact on determining the outcome of the war. Both of these were largely affected by the very common idea of Manifest Destiny.
The conflict turns into many destructions and effects, like conflict with ethnic people that led mass killing of Ngok Dinka, their cultural, citizenship, and linguistic claims, the security or violence and freedom of its citizens, and the possible wealth that they have. The 1972 Addis Ababa Agreement that ended the first civil war turned to be failure prior to rebellion that led to its Second Sudanese Civil War of 1983 to 2005 were it devastated the Abyei, and more attacks from both group increase continuously. Both group are claiming the Abyei as a part of them, one reason of it is the abundant oil resources that could be favorable to its economy. For the long term peace, it will need more years to finally solve since the actions that they create are not agreeable on both
Accidents are a detrimental factor in many different industries and constitute a potential source of human loss, equipment damage and environmental impact. As the Petroleum refineries are generally acknowledged to be high hazard sites (Wood and Guenes, 2015) it is important to take into consideration that in a number of cases, the resulting fatalities and serious injuries can cost millions of dollars. The risk of accidents is associated with the presence of thousands of tonnes of oil into various product lines each year many of which are flammable, toxic to human health or toxic to the environment and under such conditions that an uncontrolled accident could have significant consequences to the immediate area (Christou, 1999). The consequences of such accidents cover various levels and may affect not only the industrial sites, but also have environmental and socio-economic impacts (Kadri, 2013). Every year, industrial accidents causes a number of deaths, injuries and property loss due to petroleum refining operations.
The National Congress Party (NCP) used oil revenues for crony capitalism while working on subverting the support base of parties ousted in 1989. Consequently, the national debt remains very high at $37 billion since the only beneficiaries of the resources were the Islamists themselves and their business