3.1 PRACTISE OF TORTURE IN POLICE CUSTODY Torture and violence have been identified with the police in India with police in India ever since the Vedic age (2000 to 1400 BC). The ordeals of fire, water and single combat were used. In the epic period (1400 to 800 BC) torture was practised on prisoners by the police. Kautilya’s Arthasastra speaks about various kinds of torture such as burning of limbs, tearing by wild animals, trampling to death by elephants and bulls, cutting of limbs and mutilation, etc. Manu, the law giver of this age emphasised the necessity of torture to protect the society from the hard criminals.
Human rights - a universal moral law. They do not depend on individual circumstances and are inherent to any person in any situation as a necessary component of human dignity. These rights derive from human nature itself and therefore they are called natural rights. Man has a natural birthright, and no matter whether they are recognized by the state. The state cannot deprive a person of his rights.
One of the main principles of the United States is that there are basic rights of which any person, regardless of the citizenship, cannot be deprived. This tenant applies also to those individuals who have committed crimes punished by detention. In fact, even if prisoners are not afforded all the guarantees of a free citizen, in any case they are granted specific minimal rights by the U. S. Constitution. These rights are the object of the majority of prisoners’ complaints. Inmates retain basic First Amendment rights, like freedom of speech, religion and association, and they can exercise them as far as they do not interfere with their prisoners’ status (U.S. Const.
A cause for the Spanish Inquisition’s notorious reputation were the unjust tribunals. Convicts were given a grace period to confess called the Edict of Grace, and confessors had to spy
Although he was not yet placed under arrest, he was being interrogated in a police station and being asked incriminating questions. Any average person, especially a kid, would reasonably believe that they were in police custody. Furthermore, he technically was in custody seeing as he was deprived of his freedom in a significant way, in his case being held at the police department for hours. Therefore, Thomas Cogdell deserved to have a lawyer present during his interrogation. The second of Cogdell’s constitutional rights to be violated involves a case decided before the Miranda case, but is still applicable nonetheless.
The Mughal dynasty itself was stripped of all recognition. The associated martial elites suffered a permanent loss of prestige as Indians of succeeding generations. Additionally, the consequence of the mutiny plowed the seeds of Indian nationalism into the minds of the Indian elites. In spite of the fact that some historians including Devji disagree on such a view, others do agree that the significance of the mutiny to the Indian nationalism. Duffett and others contend that the mutiny completely destroyed the fragile relations between the British and the Indians when the British made efforts to build a closer tie between the two groups with education and the liberation of the civil service.
Human rights are the rights of human being that naturally they have since they were born and this right is legitimate and all the people have the same rights to live without having any discrimination. Human rights are universal because we can have it without seeing our nationality, race, religion, gender or any other status and it’s guaranteed by the law. In the past human rights is only concern for the protection of individual but nowadays the understanding of human rights is develop into the creation of condition in social, economy, politics and culture. Sexual Rights embrace human rights that already recognized in national laws, international, and others. Sexual rights are the rights for every people to freely choose and express their
The definition of Human Rights varies from culture to culture. Most generally your basic human rights are considered to be the ones given to you at birth that can (or should) never be taken away; such as the right to shelter, food, and personal safety. However, after you start to go deeper into the concept of Human rights, there are clearly many different interpretations, which inevitably results in arguments on whether the concept of Human Rights is unachievable. Both the argument for and against the ideal that Human Rights are possible can be justified. Firstly, one can argue that Human Rights are a viable concept.
The United Nations Committee Against Torture has confirmed the systematic nature of torture in Egypt. Criminal Investigations officers and State Security Investigations (SSI) officers, under the authority of the minister of interior, are most often responsible for such abuse. This includes beatings, electric shocks, suspension in painful positions, forced standing for long periods, water-boarding, as well as rape and threatening to rape victims and their family. Since 2004, the ombudsman office of the quasi-official National Council for Human Rights (NCHR) has sent the Ministry of Interior and Office of the Public Prosecutor (niyaba in Arabic)-which is responsible for investigating and prosecuting crime-over 50 complaints on torture and deaths in
It is a cherished right of the people, and it is for the people. Of course, it is not an absolute right. But fundamental rights are the area where the State is prevented from treading. It is a clearance in middle of the jungle of State power. Under Part III of the Constitution of India, the citizen is granted a free arena where he/ she is protected fr.om intrusions of the State.