The long bone is that it allows movement , particularly in the limbs eg the femur (thigh bone) tibia and fibula (lower leg bones) humerus (upper arm bone), the radius and the ulna (lower arm). Metacarpals (hand bones) metersals (foot bone) and phalanges (finger and toe bone) Functions of the skeleton The skeleton is the framework of the body; it supports the softer tissue and provides point of attachment for most skeletal muscles. The skeleton provides mechanical protection for many of the body’s internal organs, redusing risk of injury to them. Skeletal bones are attached to the muscle contract they cause bone to move, packed with over 200 bones, skeletons protect, shape support and move our bodies as well as producing red blood cells in the bone
Ligaments, muscles and tendonscourse along the planes of your feet, allowing the complexarrangementsdesirable for movement and steadiness. The Achilles tendon attaches your heel to the calf muscles and is indispensible for loping, hopping, and being upright on yourtoes. The typical length of an adult male foot isabout 26, 3centimeters whereas that of an adult female foot is about 24 centimeters. The
Anatomically, the patella is of a disproportionate oval-shaped sesamoid bone which articulates with the femoral sulcus. Its proximal attachment is the quadriceps tendon which envelopes the structure and distally at the apex, the patellar tendon attaches. Both the tendons are functional as to stabilise the patella bone in the knee joint during movements or even when the joint is static. Also, the patellar retinacula are attached to both the medial and lateral sides of the patella. When the tendon is overused chronically without given adequate time to heal, tendinosis known as Jumper’s Knee can occur in response to the damage.
1. Darwin Theory of Evolution helped come up with the conclusion of natural selection and shared ancestry. Meaning that all species arise and develop through inherited variations, increasing the species ability to survive, reproduce, and compete. The primary example for this theory was his findings of the finches on the Galapagos island. He noticed that these finches were similar to other species that were on different islands.
Beside evolution, Tree of Life also metaphorically represents the general relationship between different species over time. While the concept of sharing a common ancestor is still debated even until today, so is evolution. So does evolution actually happen? Yes, it is even still and will always be happening. There are many evidences of evolution and one of it is homology.
Evolution is the process of change over time. It can be split in two questions, how did something living come from something that was not alive? And, how did things that were already living turn into other living things? Natural selection is when the “breeder: is the environment. This belief of natural selection came from Charles Darwin.
Archaeology Essay: Bipedalism in hominids Introduction: Bipedalism is the defining characteristic of all hominins. It is what separates us from all other primates as it occurs uniquely in our species. The physical and mental characteristics of hominins has changed dramatically over our evolutionary timeline that has led to current day humans. If you were to compare a modern day human with our earliest hominin ancestors there are few similarities between them. However the one feature that unites all hominins is an upright posture and a bipedal gait.
“Knowledge within a discipline develops according to the principles of natural selection.” How useful is this metaphor? “It is not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” - Charles Darwin Charles Darwin, the father of the evolutionary theory, along with Alfred Wallace, a fellow naturalist, produced a joint publication introducing the world to a phenomenon that is applicable not only to the living species of the planet, but also every aspect of growth, knowledge and lifestyles throughout history- the theory of evolution and natural selection. Darwin stated that natural selection is a process through which organisms and species adapt to their environment. Through natural
Darwin emphasizes that through nature’s guiding hand, “the vigorous, the healthy, and the happy survive and multiply” (O Chapter 3). These two steps “survive and multiply” is the encapsulating idea to Darwin’s entire claim towards the idea of natural selection. The organism must first survive the fierce force of nature to reproduce and pass on its traits to the next generation which will be better equipped with the ability to
It was first officially recorded by Charles Darwin in his book “On the Origin of Species.” A more common explanation of the theory is “the survival of the fittest”, meaning the species survive according to their strength, ability to adapt, and ability to reproduce. The most popular form of evolution is that humans evolved from apelike creatures. “Humans are primates. Physical and genetic similarities show that the modern human species, Homo sapiens, have a very close relationship to another group of primate species, the apes” (Smithsonian National Museum). Thousands of fossils have been found and studied to see the change in brain and body size from the beginning of the human species which have had many similarities to apes (Smithsonian National Museum).
It has a light skeleton for faster speed and its leg bones are longer in relation to the body size. They run on the tips of their toes while their spines are more flexible than other cats, letting them increase the size of their stride step. Their hip bones can hinge allowing them to stretch their legs further. These adaptations give a fast pace when running. For maintaining balance and to change direction faster and more precise, their long-narrowed well- muscled tail helps.
This study examined the differences in articular surface morphology of caudal vertebrae between prehensile and non-prehensile tailed primates. Articular surface is skeletal surface, which includes bone and cartilage, that makes contact with other skeletal surface as part of a joint. Variation in the morphology of articular surface can confer a greater capacity for mechanical loading, which is required for prehensile primates as they often use their tails to suspend their entire weight during locomotion. In this experiment, it was hypothesized that articular surface area and curvature in caudal vertebrae could be used to distinguish between prehensile and non-prehensile tails. The results showed that articular surfaces found in both proximal and distal regions were greater in prehensile tailed primates, in comparison to primates that were non-prehensile tailed.
Nonetheless, our group observed specific locations in the skull that over time, changed among species. The following methodology will include how to observe or examine the different locations that were relevant to the study. By looking for the widest part in the back of the skull the location of the maximum skull breath can be identified. The degree of postorbital constriction can be recognized by observing the space behind the brow/supraorbital ridge. The zygomatic flare can be examined by evaluating how wide is the zygomatic bone.
The four components of the axial skeleton are: SKULL (consists of 28 bones that include the cranium, which encloses and protects the brain and facial bones). VERTEBRAL COLUMN (supports the skull and protect the spinal cord). RIBS ( 12 pairs of bow shaped bones that protect the organs in the body cavities of the trunk). STERNUM ( aka breastbone and supports the collar bones). The Appendicular skeleton consists of: PECTORAL GIRDLE (consists of two shoulder blades and two collar bones, which articulate together to allow some movement).